This indicator measures a government’s commitment to secondary education for girls in terms of access, enrollment, and retention. MCC uses this indicator for Scorecard LMICs only.
Relationship to Growth & Poverty Reduction
Access to continued education beyond the primary level solidifies the benefits associated with girls’ primary education. Secondary education for girls ensures they receive both the benefits of primary education and the additional benefits linked to further education. Empirical research consistently shows a strong positive correlation between girls’ secondary education and faster economic growth, higher wages for women, slower population growth, and increased labor productivity. 1 According to one estimate, a 1 percent increase in proportion of women enrolled in secondary school will generate a 0.3 percent growth in annual per-capita income. 2 A large body of literature also shows that increasing a mother’s schooling has large effect on her children’s health, schooling, and adult productivity. 3 The social benefits of female education are also demonstrated through postponed marriage and pregnancy, lower fertility rates, decreased child and maternal mortality, reduced transmission of hiv, and greater educational achievement by children. 4
The Girls’ Secondary Education Enrolment Ratio indicator measures the number of female pupils enrolled in lower secondary school (regardless of age), expressed as a percentage of the total female population of the standard age of enrolment for lower secondary education. Lower secondary school is defined as a program typically designed to complete the development of basic skills and knowledge which began at the primary level. In many countries, the educational aim is to lay the foundation for lifelong learning and individual development. The programs at this level are usually on a subject-oriented pattern, requiring specialized teachers for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education. For fy15, MCC will use the most recent UNESCO data from 2008 – 2013.
- 1. Behrman, Jere R. and Anil B. Deolalikar. 1995. Are there differential returns to schooling by gender? The case of Indonesian labor markets. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 57(1): 97-117. Chen, Derek H. C. 2004. Gender Equality and Economic Development: The Role for Information and Communication Technologies. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3285. David Dollar and Roberta Gatti. 1999. Gender inequality, income, and growth: Are good times good for women? World Bank Policy Research Report on Gender and Development Working Paper Series No. 1. World Bank: Washington, D.C. Deolalikar, Anil B. 1993. Gender Differences in the Returns to Schooling and in School Enrollment Rates in Indonesia. Journal of Human Resources 28 (4): 899–932. Klasen, Stephan. 2002. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? World Bank Economic Review 16(3): 345-373. Mathur, Ashok and Rajendra P. Mamgain. 2004. Human capital stocks: Their level of utilization and economic development in India, Indian Journal of Labour Economics 47(4): 655-75. Psacharopoulos, George and Harry Anthony Patrinos. 2004. Returns to investment in education: a further update. Education Economics 12(2): 111-134. Raza, Moonis, and H. Ramachandran. 1990. Schooling and Rural Transformation. New Delhi: Vikas for National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration. Schultz, T. Paul. 1993. Returns to women’s schooling. In Elizabeth King and M. Anne Hill, eds., Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Schultz, T. Paul. 1999. Health and schooling investments in Africa. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(3): 67-88. Schultz, T. Paul. 2002. Why governments should invest more to educate girls. World Development 30(2): 212. Self, Sharmistha and Richard Grawbowski. 2004. Does education at all levels cause growth? India, a case study. Economics of Education Review, 23: 47-55. Smith, Lisa C. and Lawrence Haddad. 2002. How potent is economic growth in reducing undernutrition? What are the pathways of impact? New cross-country evidence. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 51(1): 55-76. Tilak, Jandhyala B. G. 1990. Education and earnings: Gender differences in India, International Journal of Development Planning Literature 5(4): 131-39. Tilak, Jandhyala B. G. Post-elementary Education, Poverty and Development in India. 1994. World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. New York: Oxford University Press
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