This indicator measures the government’s commitment to investing in primary education.
Relationship to Growth & Poverty Reduction
While MCC generally strives to measure outcomes rather than inputs, educational outcome indicators can be very slow to adjust to policy changes, and adequate data on educational quality do not yet exist in a consistent manner across a large number of countries. Therefore, the Primary Education Expenditures indicator is used to gauge the extent to which governments are currently making investments in the education of their citizens. Research shows that, for given levels of quality, well-managed and well-executed government spending on primary education can improve educational attainment and increase economic growth. 1 There is also evidence that the returns to education to an economy as a whole are larger than the private returns. 2 Investments in basic education are also critical to poverty reduction. Research shows that regions that begin with higher levels of education generally see a larger poverty impact of economic growth. 3
UIS attempts to measure total current and capital expenditure on primary education at every level of administration—central, regional, and local. UIS data generally include subsidies for private education, but not foreign aid for primary education. UIS data may also exclude spending by religious schools, which plays a significant role in many developing countries.
In its data request to candidate countries, MCC asks that public expenditure on primary education be measured consistently with the IMF’s definition of primary education expenditure in Government Finance Statistics (GFS Line 707), which in turn relies on the 1997 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-97). Government outlays on primary education include expenditures on services provided to individual pupils and students and expenditures on services provided on a collective basis. Primary education includes the administration, inspection, operation, or support of schools and other institutions providing primary education at ISCED-97 level 1. It also includes literacy programs for students too old for primary school. For FY14, MCC will use the most recent UNESCO data from 2009 - 2013.
- 1. Rajkumar, A.S. and V. Swaroop. 2002: Public Spending and Outcomes: Does. Governance Matter? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2840. Baldacci, E., Benedict Clements, Sanjeev Gupta and Qiang Cui. 2004. Social Spending, Human Capital and Growth in Developing Countries: Implications for Achieving the MDGs. IMF Working Paper 04/217. Rajkumar, A.S. and V. Swaroop. 2002: Public Spending and Outcomes: Does. Governance Matter? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2840. Castro-Leal, F., J.Dayton, L. Demery, and K.Mehra. 1999. Public Social Spending in Africa: Do the Poor Benefit? World Bank Research Observer 14(1):49–72. Barro, R. J. 1991. Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries. Quarterly Journal of Economics 106 (2):407-43. Krueger, Alan, and Mikael Lindahl. 2001. Education for Growth: Why and for Whom? Journal of Economic Literature 39 (4): 1101–36.
- 2. Moretti, E. 2004. Estimating the Social Return to Higher Education: Evidence From Longitudinal and Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. Journal of Econometrics 121(1-2).
- 3. Datt, Gaurav and Martin Ravallion. 1998. Why have Some Indian States Done Better than Others at Reducing Rural Poverty? Economica 65: 17-38. Christiaensen, L., L. Demery, and S. Paternostro. 2003. Macro and Micro Perspectives of Growth and Poverty in Africa. The World Bank Economic Review 17: 317-334.