Child Health Indicator

Description

This composite indicator measures a government’s commitment to child health as measured by child mortality, the sound management of water resources and water systems, and proper sewage disposal and sanitary control.

Relationship to Growth & Poverty Reduction

Improving child health leads to a more productive and healthier workforce both presently and in the future. Inadequate water and sanitation is the second leading cause of child mortality; it kills more young children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined. 1 Improved sanitation and increased access to water have numerous economic benefits, including productivity savings in the form of fewer missed days of work or school due to illness from unclean water; the economic contribution of the lives saved from diarrheal disease; decreasing treatment expenditures for diarrheal disease at both the individual and government levels and time savings related to searching for facilities and water collection that would increase time for income-earning work. 2 Vulnerable groups, such as women, children, handicapped individuals and the very poor, are particularly affected by inadequate sanitation and water quality, meaning that improvement in these areas would help these groups the most. 3 In children in particular, improved sanitation and water quality have been found to improve learning outcomes due to alleviating the burden of illness and helminthes (parasites) on cognitive development. 4

Methodology

This index is calculated as the average of three, equally-weighted indicators:

  • Access to Improved Sanitation: Produced by WHO and UNICEF, this indicator measures the percentage of the population with access to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal, and insect contact. Facilities such as flush/pour-flush to a piped system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrines; pit latrines with slabs; and composting toilets are considered improved sources, provided that they are not shared between two or more households.
  • Access to Improved Water: Produced by WHO and UNICEF, this indicator measures the percentage of the population with access to at least 20 liters of water per person per day from an improved source (household connections, public taps or standpipes, boreholes or tube wells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection) within one kilometer of the user’s dwelling.
  • Child Mortality (Ages 1-4): Produced by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, this indicator measures the probability of dying between turning one and turning five.

Source

  • Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CIESIN/YCELP)

Footnotes
  • 1. UNICEF. 2009. Diarhhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done. Access at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598415_eng.pdf.
  • 2. Cumming, Oliver. 2008. Tackling the silent killer: The case for sanitation. London: Water Aid. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2011. Benefits of Investing in Water and Sanitation: An OECD Perspective. Paris: OECD Publishing. Hutton et al, UNDP (2006) ‘Economic and health effects of increasing coverage of low cost sanitation interventions’, Human Development Report Office occasional paper Evans, Hutton and Haller (2004), “Closing the sanitation gap: the case for better public funding of sanitation and hygiene”, OECD Round Table on Sustainable Development 2004 UNDP (2006) Human Development Report: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty, and the Global Water Crisis. New York: UNDP. World Bank (2008) Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, Economics, and Experiences. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Haller L, Hutton G, and Bartram J. (2007). Estimating the costs and health benefits of water and sanitation improvements at global level. Journal of Water and Health 5:4, 476-480. Sijbesma, C. (2008). Sanitation and Hygiene in South Asia: Progress and Challenges. Chapter 25 from Beyond Construction Use by All. IRC, WaterAid and the WSSCC, Delft, Netherlands.
  • 3. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2011. Benefits of Investing in Water and Sanitation: An OECD Perspective. Paris: OECD Publishing. Evans, Hutton and Haller (2004), “Closing the sanitation gap: the case for better public funding of sanitation and hygiene ”, OECD Round Table on Sustainable Development 2004 UNDP (2006) Human Development Report: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty, and the Global Water Crisis. New York: UNDP. World Bank (2008) Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, Economics, and Experiences. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Sijbesma, C. (2008). Sanitation and Hygiene in South Asia: Progress and Challenges. Chapter 25 from Beyond Construction Use by All. IRC, WaterAid and the WSSCC, Delft, Netherlands.
  • 4. Evans, Hutton and Haller (2004), “Closing the sanitation gap: the case for better public funding of sanitation and hygiene”, OECD Round Table on Sustainable Development 2004. UNDP (2006) Human Development Report: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty, and the Global Water Crisis. New York: UNDP. World Bank (2008) Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, Economics, and Experiences. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Bethony, Jeffrey, Simon Brokker, Marco Albonico, Stefan M. Geiger, Alex Loukas, David Diemert, and Peter J. Hortez. 2006. Soil-trasmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet, 367: 1521-32.