Girls' Secondary Education Enrollment Ratio Indicator

Description

This indicator measures a government’s commitment to secondary education for girls in terms of access, enrollment, and retention. MCC uses this indicator for Scorecard LMICs only.

Relationship to Growth & Poverty Reduction

Access to continued education beyond the primary level solidifies the benefits associated with girls’ primary education. Secondary education for girls ensures they receive both the benefits of primary education and the additional benefits linked to further education. Empirical research consistently shows a strong positive correlation between girls’ secondary education and faster economic growth, higher wages for women, slower population growth, and increased labor productivity. 1 According to one estimate, a 1 percent increase in proportion of women enrolled in secondary school will generate a 0.3 percent growth in annual per-capita income. 2 A large body of literature also shows that increasing a mother’s schooling has large effect on her children’s health, schooling, and adult productivity. 3 The social benefits of female education are also demonstrated through postponed marriage and pregnancy, lower fertility rates, decreased child and maternal mortality, reduced transmission of HIV, and greater educational achievement by children. 4

Methodology

The Girls’ Secondary Education Enrolment Ratio indicator measures the number of female pupils enrolled in lower secondary school (regardless of age), expressed as a percentage of the total female population of the standard age of enrolment for lower secondary education. Lower secondary school is defined as a program typically designed to complete the development of basic skills and knowledge which began at the primary level. In many countries, the educational aim is to lay the foundation for lifelong learning and individual development. The programs at this level are usually on a subject-oriented pattern, requiring specialized teachers for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education. For FY16, MCC will use the most recent UNESCO data from 2009 - 2014.

Source

  • United National Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics (UNESCO/UIS)

    UIS compiles primary education expenditure data from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.

Footnotes
  • 1. Behrman, Jere R. and Anil B. Deolalikar. 1995. Are there differential returns to schooling by gender? The case of Indonesian labor markets. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 57(1): 97-117. Chen, Derek H. C. 2004. Gender Equality and Economic Development: The Role for Information and Communication Technologies. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3285. David Dollar and Roberta Gatti. 1999. Gender inequality, income, and growth: Are good times good for women? World Bank Policy Research Report on Gender and Development Working Paper Series No. 1. World Bank: Washington, D.C. Deolalikar, Anil B. 1993. Gender Differences in the Returns to Schooling and in School Enrollment Rates in Indonesia. Journal of Human Resources 28 (4): 899—932. Klasen, Stephan. 2002. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? World Bank Economic Review 16(3): 345-373. Mathur, Ashok and Rajendra P. Mamgain. 2004. Human capital stocks: Their level of utilization and economic development in India, Indian Journal of Labour Economics 47(4): 655-75. Psacharopoulos, George and Harry Anthony Patrinos. 2004. Returns to investment in education: a further update. Education Economics 12(2): 111-134. Raza, Moonis, and H. Ramachandran. 1990. Schooling and Rural Transformation. New Delhi: Vikas for National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration. Schultz, T. Paul. 1993. Returns to women’s schooling. In Elizabeth King and M. Anne Hill, eds., Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Schultz, T. Paul. 1999. Health and schooling investments in Africa. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(3): 67-88. Schultz, T. Paul. 2002. Why governments should invest more to educate girls. World Development 30(2): 212. Self, Sharmistha and Richard Grawbowski. 2004. Does education at all levels cause growth? India, a case study. Economics of Education Review, 23: 47-55. Smith, Lisa┬áC. and Lawrence Haddad. 2002. How potent is economic growth in reducing undernutrition? What are the pathways of impact? New cross-country evidence. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 51(1): 55-76. Tilak, Jandhyala B. G. 1990. Education and earnings: Gender differences in India, International Journal of Development Planning Literature 5(4): 131-39. Tilak, Jandhyala B. G. Post-elementary Education, Poverty and Development in India. 1994. World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • 2. David Dollar and Roberta Gatti. 1999. Gender inequality, income, and growth: Are good times good for women? World Bank Policy Research Report on Gender and Development Working Paper Series No. 1. World Bank: Washington, D.C.
  • 3. Alderman, Harold, and Elizabeth M. King. 1998. Gender Differences in Parental Investment in Education Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 9 (4): 453—68. Filmer, Deon. 2000. The Structure of Social Disparities in Education: Gender and Wealth. Policy Research Working Paper No. 2268, World Bank Development Research Group/Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. King, Elizabeth, and Rosemary Bellew. 1991. Gains in the education of Peruvian women, 1940-1980. In Barbara Herz and Shahidur Khandkher, Eds. Women’s Work, Education, and Family Welfare in Peru. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 166. Washington D.C.: World Bank. Klasen, Stephan. 2002. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? World Bank Economic Review 16(3): 345-373. Lavy, Victor. 1996. School Supply Constraints and Children’s Educational Outcomes in Rural Ghana. Journal of Development Economics 51 (2): 291—314. Lillard, Lee A. and Robert J. Willis. 1993. Intergenerational Education Mobility: Effects of family and state in Malaysia. RAND Labor and Population Program Working Paper Series 93-38. Mammen, Kristin, and Christina Paxon. 2000. Women’s Work and Economic Development. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 (4): 141—64. Schultz, T. Paul. 2002. Why governments should invest more to educate girls. World Development 30(2): 212. Thomas, Duncan. 1990. Intra-household allocation: An inferential approach. Journal of Human Resources 25(4): 635-64.
  • 4. Behrman, J.R. and A Deolalikar. 1998. Health and nutrition. In Handbook of Development Economics, eds. H. Chenery and T. N. Srinivasan. Amsterdam: North Holland. Cochrane, S., J. Leslie, and D. O’Hara. 1982. Parental education and child health: Intercountry evidence. Health Policy and Education 2:213-50. De Walque, Damien, J. S. Nakiyingi-Miiro, J. Busingye, and J. A. Whitworth. 2005. Changing Association between Schooling Levels and HIV-1 Infection Over 11 Years in a Rural Population Cohort in South-West Uganda. Tropical Medicine and International Health 10(10): 993-1001. De Walque, Damien. 2004. How does educational attainment affect the risk of being infected by HIV/AIDS? Evidence from a general population cohort in rural Uganda. World Bank Development Research Group Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Dollar, David, Raymond Fisman, and Roberta Gatti. 2001. Are women really the ‘fairer’ sex? Corruption and women in government. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 46(4): 423—429. Gage, Anastasia, Elisabeth Sommerfeldt, and Andrea Piani. 1997. Household structure and childhood immunization in Niger and Nigeria. Demography 34(2): 195-309. Herz, Barbara and Gene Sperling. 2004. What works in girls’ education: evidence and policies for the developing world. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. Hill, M. Anne and Elizabeth King. 1995.“Women’s Education and Economic Well-Being.” Feminist Economics 1(2): 21-46. Klasen, Stephan. 1999. Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development Working Paper No. 7. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Malhotra, Anju, Caren Grown, and Rohini Pande. 2003. Impact of investments in female education on gender inequality. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women. Schultz, T. Paul. 1993.“Returns to women’s schooling,” in Elizabeth King and M. Anne Hill, eds., Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Smith, Lisa C., and Lawrence Haddad. 1999. Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: a cross-country analysis. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper 60. Washington, D.C.: IFPRI. Subbarao, K., and Laura Raney. 1995. Social gains from female education. Economic Development and Cultural Change 44 (1): 105-28. Summers, Lawrence H. 1994. Investing in all the people: educating women in developing countries. EDI Seminar Paper No. 45, Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Thomas, D., J. Strauss, and M. H. Henriques. 1990. Child survival, height for age, and household characteristics in Brazil. Journal of Development. 33(2): 197-234. Trussell, T. J. and S. Preston. 1982. Estimating the covariates of child mortality from retrospective reports of mothers. Health Policy and Education. 3:1-36. UNESCO. 2000. “Women and Girls: Education, Not Discrimination.” Paris: UNESCO. UNICEF. 2002. Education and HIV Prevention. Citing data from Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. New York: UNICEF. Vandemoortele, J. and E. Delamonica. 2000. Education ‘vaccine’ against HIVAIDS. Current Issues in Comparative Education 3(1).