This indicator measures a government’s commitment to secondary education for girls in terms of access, enrollment, and retention. MCC uses this indicator for countries with a GNI per capita between $2,046 and $5,255 only.
Relationship to Growth & Poverty Reduction
Access to continued education beyond the primary level solidifies the benefits associated with girls’ primary education. Secondary education for girls ensures they receive both the benefits of primary education and the additional benefits linked to further education. Empirical research consistently shows a strong positive correlation between girls’ secondary education and faster economic growth, higher wages for women, slower population growth, and increased labor productivity. 1 According to one estimate, a 1 percent increase in proportion of women enrolled in secondary school will generate a 0.3 percent growth in annual per-capita income. 2 A large body of literature also shows that increasing a mother’s schooling has large effect on her children’s health, schooling, and adult productivity. 3 The social benefits of female education are also demonstrated through postponed marriage and pregnancy, lower fertility rates, decreased child and maternal mortality, reduced transmission of HIV, and greater educational achievement by children. 4
The Girls’ Secondary Education Enrolment Ratio indicator measures the number of female pupils enrolled in lower secondary school (regardless of age), expressed as a percentage of the total female population of the standard age of enrolment for lower secondary education. Lower secondary school is defined as a program typically designed to complete the development of basic skills and knowledge which began at the primary level. In many countries, the educational aim is to lay the foundation for lifelong learning and individual development. The programs at this level are usually on a subject-oriented pattern, requiring specialized teachers for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education. For FY23, MCC will use the most recent UNESCO data from 2016 or later.
MCC uses the most recent data point in the past six years
MCC draws upon data from UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics as its exclusive source of data. Specifically, MCC uses the indicator named “Gross enrolment ratio, lower secondary, female (%).” To receive an FY23 score, countries must have a UNESCO value on “gross enrolment ratio, lower secondary (female)” from 2016 or later. MCC uses the most recent year available that is, MCC uses the most recent data from the past six years. If a country does not have UNESCO data at any point from 2016 or later, it does not receive an FY23 score. As better data become available, UNESCO makes backward revisions to its historical data.
The Girls’ Secondary Education Enrollment Ratio indicator measures the number of female pupils enrolled in lower secondary school (regardless of age), expressed as a percentage of the total female population of the standard age of enrolment for lower secondary education. Lower secondary school is defined as a program typically designed to complete the development of basic skills and knowledge which began at the primary level. Because the numerator may include late entrants and over-age children, as well as children who entered school early, it is possible for the secondary enrollment rate to exceed 100 percent.