Guidance on Common Indicators

 

Guidance on

Common Indicators

 

 

March 2016

Version 3

 

Submitted by:

Department of Policy and Evaluation

Millennium Challenge Corporation

1099 14th Street N.W.

Washington, DC  20005

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Introduction_ 3

A. Including Common Indicators in the M&E Plan_ 3

B. Disaggregating Common Indicators_ 3

C. Financial Common Indicators_ 4

D. Joint Activities_ 4

E. Attribution_ 4

E. Female Ownership_ 5

Agriculture and Irrigation_ 6

Land_ 14

Roads_ 20

Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene_ 27

Power_ 42

Revisions to the Guidance on Common Indicators_ 66

 

                                                                                 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

A focus on results is one of the core principles on which the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) was founded. An important aspect of this focus is the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of compact programs.  MCC and Millennium Challenge Account entities (MCAs) develop and tailor Monitoring and Evaluation Plans (M&E Plans) to the specifics of the particular compact program and country context. Within these country-specific plans, however, MCC uses common indicators to aggregate results across countries within certain sectors and to report those results externally to key stakeholders. This document includes guidance for MCC and MCA staff on MCC’s common indicators.

 

A. Including Common Indicators in the M&E Plan

According to MCC’s Policy for Monitoring & Evaluation of Compacts and Threshold Programs each MCA must include the common indicators in its M&E Plan when the indicators are relevant to that country’s compact activities. The MCC M&E Lead assigned to each country will provide guidance on which indicators are considered relevant. However, MCAs will not be required to report on certain common indicators where collecting that data is too costly or infeasible given existing data collection plans.

MCAs should include the exact wording of the common indicator and its definition as it appears in this guidance in the M&E Plan and the Indicator Tracking Table (ITT). In addition, MCAs may want to include more a detailed definition in the Additional Information column in the M&E Plan that would describe any country-specific aspects of the indicator.

All common indicators that are part of the program logic for a particular activity must have targets in the M&E Plan unless otherwise noted in this guidance. In other words, it may not be appropriate to set targets if certain common indicators are not part of the project logic or conditions precedent.

The common indicators should be reported to MCC in the ITT as are all other indicators in the M&E Plan. If any common indicator is a percentage, the inputs to that calculation must be included in the ITT as an indicator input.

B. Disaggregating Common Indicators

Common indicators must also be reported at certain levels of disaggregation as specified in this guidance. MCAs will not be required to report on certain disaggregations where disaggregating that data is too costly or infeasible given existing data collection plans. For some indicators, multiple disaggregations are listed and an example is provided below as to how those multiple disaggregations should be recorded in the ITT. Targets are not required for the disaggregation unless they are specifically called for in a country’s M&E Plan. For example, targets are required for the number of farmers trained, but not always for the number of male or female farmers trained.

Example of multiple disaggregations:

Indicator title: Students participating in MCC supported education activities

Disaggregation: (A) Sex (Female/Male); (B) School level (Primary/Secondary/Post-secondary)

Indicator

Actual

Students participating in MCC supported education activities

1,000

Students participating in MCC supported education activities (Female) 

400

Students participating in MCC supported education activities (Male)

600

Students participating in MCC supported education activities (Primary)

0

Students participating in MCC supported education activities (Secondary)

0

Students participating in MCC supported education activities (Post-secondary)

1,000

 

C. Financial Common Indicators

For indicators such as “Value of signed contracts” that are US Dollars denominated indicators, it is the responsibility of the MCA M&E unit to report using the same exchange rate that the MCA fiscal agent uses in the Quarterly Disbursement Request Package (QDRP) submission. We recommend that the MCA M&E unit request the information for these indicators directly from the MCA fiscal agent.

D. Joint Activities

Some MCC activities are conducted jointly with other organizations. For indicators where this is the case, MCA should report only MCC’s contribution to a particular common indicator. At times this will be challenging and not exact, so the calculation of the indicator should be documented clearly in the M&E Plan.

E. Attribution

MCC uses these common indicators to report on results; however MCC recognizes that at the outcome level, it is difficult to attribute changes in some of these indicators to MCC investments. This is because many other factors can influence these outcomes. Therefore, MCC will be explicit in its reporting about which changes in outcome indicators are more likely the result of MCC investments and which changes are trends taking place that could be the result of MCC investments as well as other interventions.

 

 

F. Female Ownership

MCC uses the standard definition for “women (or female) owned business or enterprise” as a business that is no less than 51 percent unconditionally and directly owned and controlled by one or more women. A family enterprise where a man and a woman each own 50 percent of the assets is not a woman owned enterprise and cannot be counted as such. Furthermore, the word control relates to management and it requires that both the long-term decision making and the day-to-day management and administration of the business operations must be conducted by one or more women.
Agriculture and Irrigation

 

(AI-1) Value of signed irrigation feasibility and design contracts  

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for agricultural irrigation investments using 609(g) and compact funds.

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Costs associated with pre-feasibility, supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-2) Percent disbursed of irrigation feasibility and design contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for agricultural irrigation investments disbursed divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of irrigation feasibility and design contracts (AI-2.1). Denominator = Value of signed irrigation feasibility and design contracts (AI-1). 

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-2.1) Value disbursed of irrigation feasibility and design contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for agricultural irrigation investments using 609(g) and compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-3) Value of signed irrigation construction contracts 

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed construction contracts for agricultural irrigation investments using compact funds.

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Cost sharing by others (e.g., the non-MCC funding component of any co-financing with other donors or government) should not be included. Cost associated with supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None
 

(AI-4) Percent disbursed of irrigation construction contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed construction contracts for agricultural irrigation investments disbursed divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of irrigation construction contracts (AI-4.1). Denominator = Value of signed irrigation construction contracts (AI-3). 

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-4.1) Value disbursed of irrigation construction contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed construction contracts for agricultural irrigation investments using compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-5) Temporary employment generated in irrigation

Units: Number

Definition: The number of people temporarily employed or contracted by MCA-contracted construction companies to work on construction of irrigation systems.

Guidance: This indicator counts the number of people contracted, not the amount of time that those people were temporarily employed. Even if a person was contracted for 1 day, he/she should be counted. Both local and foreign workers should be included. Informal employment generated by construction activities is not included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

Targets: Not required

 

(AI-6) Farmers trained[1]

Units: Number

Definition: The number of primary sector producers (farmers, ranchers, fishermen, and other primary sector producers) receiving technical assistance or participating in a training session (on improved production techniques and technologies, including post-harvest interventions, developing business, financial, or marketing planning, accessing credit or finance, or accessing input and output  markets). 

Guidance: Each country should define clearly what it means to “train” a farmer taking into consideration the desired result of training or technical assistance. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan. An individual who receives training or technical assistance multiple times should be counted only once, as one individual trained.  Note that the list of training types listed in the definition is not exhaustive.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(AI-7) Enterprises assisted[2]

Units: Number

Definition: The number of enterprises; producer, processing, and marketing organizations; water users associations; trade and business associations; and community-based organizations receiving assistance.    

Guidance: This assistance includes interventions that focus on enterprise or association/cooperative functions, such as processing, marketing, or any downstream techniques, as well as managerial and financial practices. In the case of training or assistance to associations or cooperatives, if the intervention focuses on the associative functions, such as the management or strategic planning of the association as a whole, individual members are not counted separately, but as one entity.  If the training or technical assistance is provided to a group of enterprises but focuses on productive functions at the individual enterprise level, each enterprise is counted separately. An individual can be considered an enterprise.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male) (ownership)

 

(AI-8) Hectares under improved irrigation

Units: Hectares

Definition: The number of hectares served by existing or new irrigation infrastructure that are either rehabilitated or constructed with MCC funding. 

Guidance: This indicator reports on the number of hectares affected by infrastructure interventions once they have been completed. The indicator includes all hectares within the service area of an improved irrigation system regardless of whether or not they are under production.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-9) Loan borrowers

Units: Number

Definition: The number of borrowers (primary sector producers, rural entrepreneurs, and associations) who access loans for on-farm, off-farm, and rural investment through MCC financial assistance.

Guidance: This indicator does not include loan borrowers that receive loans indirectly as the result of an MCC land activity. If the borrower receives more than one loan, he/she should be counted only once.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(AI-10) Value of agricultural and rural loans[3]

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of agricultural loans and rural loans disbursed for on-farm, off-farm, and rural investments. 

Guidance: Loans and credit can be extended to producers and agribusinesses by financial institutions such as commercial banks, government banks, non-bank financial institutions, financial NGOs and input suppliers, or equity financing. Only MCC’s contribution to the loan should be counted. This indicator does not include the value of loans provided indirectly as the result of an MCC land activity. Loan guarantees should be accounted for separately from this indicator.  Loan values should be converted to USD using the exchange rate on the date that the loan was disbursed.  If the exact date of disbursement is not known, the average exchange rate during the month of disbursement should be used.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(AI-11) Farmers who have applied improved practices as a result of training[4]

Units: Number

Definition: The number of primary sector producers (farmers, ranchers, fishermen, and other primary sector producers) that are applying new production or managerial techniques introduced or supported by MCC training or technical assistance, such as input use, production techniques, irrigation practices, post- harvest treatment, farm management techniques, or marketing strategies.

Guidance: This indicator should be directly linked to the indicator on number of farmers trained (AI-6).  Each country should define clearly what it means to “apply an improved technique,” taking into consideration the specific training or technical assistance being provided. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan. In the case where a farmer applies more than one improved technique, the farmer is counted only once.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(AI-12) Hectares under improved practices as a result of training[5]

Units: Hectares

Definition: The number of hectares on which farmers are applying new production or managerial techniques introduced or supported by MCC, such as input use, production techniques, irrigation practices, post-harvest treatment,  farm management techniques, or marketing strategies. 

Guidance: This indicator is directly linked to the indicator capturing the number of farmers who applied improved practices (AI-11) when new techniques are crop related.  Note that this indicator is cumulative over the period of evaluation and any piece of land that was under improved practices for any period of time should be counted once.  Example methods of calculation:

  1. Spot checks on a random sample of plots 1 year after training find that 60% of the hectares surveyed are using improved technology.  Assuming a sufficiently large sample was surveyed, this figure would be used to extrapolate the Ha for the total population and the indicator would report [.6*Total Ha under production of farmers trained].
  2. Follow-up surveys with trained farmers might allow for the calculation of the exact number of Ha under improved technology.  If later rounds of follow-up surveys are conducted, any additional Ha of land under improved practices that were not previously counted, would be added to the previous indicator value.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(AI-13) Enterprises that have applied improved techniques[6]

Units: Number

Definition: The number of rural enterprises; producer, processing, and marketing organizations; water users associations; trade and business associations; and community-based organizations that are applying managerial or processing techniques introduced or supported by MCC. 

Guidance: This indicator should be directly linked to the indicator of number of enterprises assisted (AI-7). In the case where an enterprise applies more than one improved technique, the enterprise is counted only once. Each country should define clearly what it means to “apply an improved technique” taking into consideration the specific training or technical assistance being provided. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male) (ownership)

 

 

Agriculture and Irrigation Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

(AI-1) Value of signed irrigation feasibility and design contracts 

 

(AI-2) Percent disbursed of irrigation feasibility and design contracts

            AI-2.1 Value disbursed of irrigation feasibility and design contracts

 

(AI-3) Value of signed irrigation construction contracts

 

(AI-4) Percent disbursed of irrigation construction contracts

            AI-4.1 Value disbursed of irrigation construction contracts

 

(AI-5) Temporary employment generated in irrigation

            AI-5.1 Temporary employment generated in irrigation (Female)

            AI-5.2 Temporary employment generated in irrigation (Male)

 

(AI-6) Farmers trained

            AI-6.1 Famers trained (Female)

            AI-6.2 Farmers trained (Male)

 

(AI-7) Enterprises assisted

            AI-7.1 Enterprises assisted (Female)

            AI-7.2 Enterprises assisted (Male)

 

(AI-8) Hectares under improved irrigation

 

(AI-9) Loan borrowers

            AI-9.1 Loan borrowers (Female)

            AI-9.2 Loan borrowers (Male)

 

(AI-10) Value of agricultural and rural loans

            AI-10.1 Value of agricultural and rural loans (Female)

            AI-10.2 Value of agricultural and rural loans (Male)

 

(AI-11) Farmers who have applied improved practices as a result of training

AI-11.1 Farmers who have applied improved practices as a result of training (Female)

AI-11.2 Farmers who have applied improved practices as a result of training (Male)

 

(AI-12) Hectares under improved practices as a result of training

 

(AI-13) Enterprises that have applied improved techniques

            AI-13.1 Enterprises that have applied improved techniques (Female)

            AI-13.2 Enterprises that have applied improved techniques (Male)

 

Land

 

(L-1) Legal and regulatory reforms adopted  

Units: Number

Definition: The number of specific pieces of legislation or implementing regulations adopted by the compact country and attributable to compact support.  

Guidance: To date, adopted reforms have focused on amendments to existing property and land laws, and on new land tenure laws and implementing regulations, including streamlining procedures and recognition of land rights for women, communities and informal settlements.  The indicator may include reforms at either national or lower levels.  Each new or revised law should be counted as one unit.  Multiple amendments to the same law should not be counted separately.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(L-2) Land administration offices established or upgraded

Units: Number

Definition: The number of land administration and service offices or other related facilities that the project physically establishes or upgrades.

Guidance: This includes construction or rehabilitation of offices and the hiring of new staff to support the office or the installation of equipment or software, including IT equipment, office equipment, aerial or satellite imagery, software and geodetic equipment.  The office is considered established or upgraded after construction, the provision and installation of equipment and the mobilization of new staff as required to be functional. The M&E plan should indicate in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table at what level or point of completion across all sub-activities the office establishment or upgrade is considered complete.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(L-3) Stakeholders trained

Units: Number

Definition: The number of public officials, traditional authorities, project beneficiaries and representatives of the private sector, receiving formal on-the-job land training or technical assistance regarding registration, surveying, conflict resolution, land allocation, land use planning, land legislation, land management or new technologies. 

Guidance: Sensitization and other public outreach events do not count as training. The curricula, length, method and intensity of training programs vary from compact to compact and may include workshops, seminars, study trips, or courses. Each country should define clearly what it means to “train” a stakeholder taking into consideration the desired result of training. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan. An individual who receives training or technical assistance multiple times should be counted only once, as one individual trained.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(L-4) Conflicts successfully mediated

Units: Number

Definition: The number of disputed land and property rights cases that have been resolved by local authorities, contractors, mediators or courts with compact support.

Guidance: This may include resolution of property border disputes, disputes over existing ownership, and disputes over the right to own, inherit, use or access the property or land-based resource. [7]

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(L-5) Parcels corrected or incorporated in land system

Units: Parcels

Definition: The number of parcels with relevant parcel information corrected or newly incorporated into an official land information system (whether a system for the property registry, cadastre or an integrated system). 

Guidance: This may include parcel rights newly digitized, parcels with boundary revisions or ownership rights corrected, and parcels with newly formalized rights. Include only parcels corrected or incorporated directly by the project.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Land zones (Rural/Urban)

 

(L-6) Land rights formalized[8]  

Units: Number

Definition: The number of household, commercial and other legal entities (e.g., NGOs, churches, hospitals) receiving formal recognition of ownership and/or use rights through certificates, titles, leases, or other recorded documentation by government institutions or traditional authorities at national or local levels.

Guidance: This can include secondary rights.  The formalization process varies by project but can include the recordation or registration of a customary or informal right, as well as the regularization or adjudication of rights. Include only rights formalized directly by the project.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: (A) Land zones (Rural/Urban); (B) Household head (Community-owned/Male-headed household/Female-headed household/Co-headed household (Note that the disaggregations in B should be mutually exclusive and not include multiple selections.)); (C) Landholder (Household/Commercial and other legal entity)

 

(L-7) Percentage change in time for property transactions

Units: Percentage

Definition: The average percentage change in number of days for an individual or company to conduct a property transaction within the formal system. 

Guidance: This indicator is designed to refer to duration of time in calendar days and not time spent on a task.  It includes all informal and formal steps to register a property for the first time or transfer a property between owners or users.[9] Transactions can include first time registration (for those parcels not directly registered by the project) or secondary transactions through sales.[10] Secondary transactions can include transfers, mortgages, or legal conflicts. The Additional Information column in the indicator definition table should clearly state which type(s) of transactions are being tracked as part of this indicator. This indicator should be calculated as the average of the Percentage change in time for each type of property transaction. Time is tracked for the same transaction per country as defined in the M&E Plan, depending on the specific compact activities. Time reductions are usually the result of legal, regulatory, or procedural improvements, introduction of new or modified information management systems, or introduction of new facilities or equipment. The data should be collected by administrative data or survey if available or feasible.  If from survey data, the question and methods should be informed by other MCA surveys. Indicator inputs should be used to track the actual number of days in order to calculate the percentage change.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation:  (A) Customer class (Commercial/Non-commercial)

 

(L-7.1) Percentage change in time for property transactions (First time registration)

Units: Percentage

Definition: The average percentage change in number of days for an individual or company to conduct a first time registration property transaction within the formal system. 

Guidance: In order for this indicator to be properly calculated, a baseline figure for Time for first time registration property transactions is required. Numerator = Time for property transactions (First time registration) (L-7.2) – the baseline for Time for property transactions (First time registration). Denominator = Baseline for Time for property transactions (First time registration).

Level: Outcome

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(L-7.2) Time for property transactions (First time registration)

Units: Days

Definition: The average number of days for an individual or company to conduct a first time registration property transaction within the formal system. 

Level: Outcome

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(L-7.3) Percentage change in time for property transactions (Secondary transactions)

Units: Percentage

Definition: The average percentage change in number of days for an individual or company to conduct a secondary property transaction within the formal system. 

Guidance: Secondary transactions can include transfers, mortgages, or legal conflicts. The specific types of secondary transactions being tracked should be included in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan. In order for this indicator to be properly calculated, a baseline figure for Time for secondary property transactions is required. Numerator = Time for property transactions (Secondary transactions) (L-7.2) – the baseline for Time for property transactions (Secondary transactions). Denominator = Baseline for Time for property transactions (Secondary transactions).

Level: Outcome

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(L-7.4) Time for property transactions (Secondary transactions)

Units: Days

Definition:  The average number of days for an individual or company to conduct a secondary property transaction within the formal system. 

Level: Outcome

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

Land Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

(L-1) Legal and regulatory reforms adopted 

 

(L-2) Land administration offices established or upgraded

 

(L-3) Stakeholders trained

            L-3.1 Stakeholders trained (Female)

            L-3.2 Stakeholders trained (Male)

 

(L-4) Conflicts successfully mediated

 

(L-5) Parcels corrected or incorporated in land system

            L-5.1 Parcels corrected or incorporated in land system (Rural)

            L-5.2 Parcels corrected or incorporated in land system (Urban)

 

(L-6) Land rights formalized

            L-6.1 Land rights formalized (Rural)

            L-6.2 Land rights formalized (Urban)

            L-6.3 Land rights formalized (Community-owned)

            L-6.4 Land rights formalized (Female-headed household)

            L-6.5 Land rights formalized (Male-headed household)

            L-6.6 Land rights formalized (Co-headed household)

            L-6.7 Land rights formalized (Household)

            L-6.8 Land rights formalized (Commercial and other legal entity)

 

(L-7) Percentage change in time for property transactions

           

L-7.1 Percentage change in time for property transactions (First time registration)

            L-7.2 Time for property transactions (First time registration)

            L-7.3 Percentage change in time for property transactions (Secondary transactions)

            L-7.4 Time for property transactions (Secondary transactions)

            L-7.5 Percentage change in time for property transactions (Commercial)

            L-7.6 Percentage change in time for property transactions (Non-commercial)

 

 

Roads

For the purposes of disaggregation, primary, secondary and tertiary have the following definitions:

Primary: Includes national or main trunk networks

Secondary: Includes regional, departmental or state networks

Tertiary: Includes rural and community roads, tracks and trails

 

(R-1) Value of signed road feasibility and design contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for road investments using 609(g) and compact funds.

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Costs associated with pre-feasibility, supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-2) Percent disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for road investments disbursed divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts (R-2.1). Denominator = Value of signed road feasibility and design contracts (R-1). 

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(R-2.1) Value disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for road investments using 609(g) and compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator:

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-3) Kilometers of roads under design  

Units: Kilometers

Definition: The length of roads in kilometers under design contracts. This includes designs for building new roads and reconstructing, rehabilitating, resurfacing or upgrading existing roads.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-4) Value of signed road construction contracts   

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed construction contracts for new roads or reconstruction, rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of existing roads using compact funds.

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Cost sharing by others (e.g., the non-MCC funding component of any co-financing with other donors or government) should not be included. Costs associated with supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-5) Percent disbursed of road construction contracts  

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed construction contracts for new roads or reconstruction, rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of existing roads disbursed divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of road construction contracts (R-5.1). Denominator = Value of signed road construction contracts (R-4).   

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(R-5.1) Value disbursed of road construction contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed construction contracts for new roads or reconstruction, rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of existing roads using compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-6) Kilometers of roads under works contracts  

Units: Kilometers

Definition: The length of roads in kilometers under works contracts for construction of new roads or reconstruction, rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of existing roads.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-7) Temporary employment generated in road construction

Units: Number

Definition: The number of people temporarily employed or contracted by MCA-contracted construction companies to work on construction of new roads or reconstruction, rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of existing roads.

Guidance: This indicator counts the number of people contracted, not the amount of time that those people were temporarily employed. Even if a person was contracted for 1 day, he/she should be counted. Both local and foreign workers should be included. Informal employment generated by construction activities is not included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

Targets: Not required

 

(R-8) Kilometers of roads completed[11]  

Units: Kilometers

Definition: The length of roads in kilometers on which construction of new roads or reconstruction, rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of existing roads is complete (certificates handed over and approved).

Guidance: This indicator includes roads improved or constructed. 

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-9) Roughness

Units: Meters per kilometer

Definition: The measure of the roughness of the road surface, in meters of height per kilometer of distance traveled. 

Guidance: This is measured by either an International Roughness Index (IRI) machine, taking the maximum speed that a vehicle can travel on a road and finding the corresponding roughness measure, or in tight budget situations, through a visual inspection using strict criteria. A lower value means a smoother road.  Typically, a paved road will have an IRI of 3 or lower, while an impassible road will have an IRI of greater than 14.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-10) Average annual daily traffic

Units: Number

Definition: The average number and type of vehicles per day, averaged over different times (day and night) and over different seasons to arrive at an annualized daily average.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Road class (Primary/Secondary/Tertiary)

 

(R-11) Road traffic fatalities

Units: Number

Definition:  The number of road traffic fatalities per year on roads constructed, rehabilitated or improved with MCC funding.

Guidance: When reporting this indicator, it should be compared to the average annualized daily traffic multiplied by 365 days. 

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

Targets: Not required

 

 

Road Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

(R-1) Value of signed road feasibility and design contracts 

            R-1.1 Value of signed road feasibility and design contracts (Primary)

            R-1.2 Value of signed road feasibility and design contracts (Secondary)

            R-1.3 Value of signed road feasibility and design contracts (Tertiary)

 

(R-2) Percent disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts

            R-2.1 Value disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts

            R.2.2 Value disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts (Primary)

            R-2.3 Value disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts (Secondary)

            R-2.4 Value disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts (Tertiary)

 

(R-3) Kilometers of roads under design

            R-3.1 Kilometers of roads under design (Primary)

            R-3.2 Kilometers of roads under design (Secondary)

            R-3.3 Kilometers of roads under design (Tertiary)

 

(R-4) Value of signed road construction contracts

            R-4.1 Value of signed road construction contracts (Primary)

            R-4.2 Value of signed road construction contracts (Secondary)

            R-4.3 Value of signed road construction contracts (Tertiary)

 

(R-5) Percent disbursed of road construction contracts

            R-5.1 Value disbursed of road construction contracts

            R-5.2 Value disbursed of road construction contracts (Primary)

            R-5.3 Value disbursed of road construction contracts (Secondary)

            R-5.4 Value disbursed of road construction contracts (Tertiary)

 

(R-6) Kilometers of roads under works contracts

            R-6.1 Kilometers of roads under works contracts (Primary)

            R-6.2 Kilometers of roads under works contracts (Secondary)

            R-6.3 Kilometers of roads under works contracts (Tertiary)

 

(R-7) Temporary employment generated in road construction

            R-7.1 Temporary employment generated in road construction (Female)

            R-7.2 Temporary employment generated in road construction (Male)

 

(R-8) Kilometers of roads completed

            R-8.1 Kilometers of roads completed (Primary)

            R-8.2 Kilometers of roads completed (Secondary)

            R-8.3 Kilometers of roads completed (Tertiary)

 

(R-9) Roughness

            R-9.1 Roughness (Primary)

            R-9.2 Roughness (Secondary)

            R-9.3 Roughness (Tertiary)

 

(R-10) Average annual daily traffic

            R-10.1 Average annual daily traffic (Primary)

            R-10.2 Average annual daily traffic (Secondary)

            R-10.3 Average annual daily traffic (Tertiary)

 

(R-11) Road traffic fatalities

            R-11.1 Road traffic fatalities (Female)

            R-11.2 Road traffic fatalities (Male)

Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

 

(WS-1) Value of signed water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts  

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for water and sanitation investments using 609(g) and compact funds. 

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Costs associated with pre-feasibility, supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-2) Percent disbursed of water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for water and sanitation investments disbursed divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts (WS-2.1). Denominator = Value of signed water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts (WS-1).

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-2.1) Value disbursed of water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental contracts, including resettlement action plans, for water and sanitation investments using 609(g) and compact funds. 

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-3) Value of signed water and sanitation construction contracts  

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed construction contracts for reconstruction, rehabilitation, or upgrading of water and sanitation works using compact funds.

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Cost sharing by others (e.g., the non-MCC funding component of any co-financing with other donors or government) should not be included. Costs associated with supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-4) Percent disbursed of water and sanitation construction contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed construction contracts for construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or upgrading of water and sanitation works disbursed divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of water and sanitation construction contracts (WS-4.1). Denominator = Value of signed water and sanitation construction contracts (WS-3). 

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-4.1) Value disbursed of water and sanitation construction contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed construction contracts for reconstruction, rehabilitation, or upgrading of water and sanitation works using compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

(WS-5) Temporary employment generated in water and sanitation construction

Units: Number

Definition: The number of people temporarily employed or contracted by MCA-contracted construction companies to work on construction of water or sanitation systems.

Guidance: This indicator counts the number of people contracted, not the amount of time that those people were temporarily employed. Even if a person was contracted for 1 day, he/she should be counted. Both local and foreign workers should be included. Informal employment generated by construction activities is not included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

Targets: Not required

 

(WS-6) People trained in hygiene and sanitary best practices  

Units: Number

Definition: The number of people who have completed training on hygiene and sanitary practices that block the fecal-oral transmission route.

Guidance: Each country should define clearly what it means to “train” a person taking into consideration the desired result of training or technical assistance. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan. An individual who receives training or technical assistance multiple times should be counted only once, as one individual trained.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(WS-7) Water points constructed  

Units: Number

Definition: The number of non-networked, stand-alone water supply systems constructed, such as: protected dug wells, tube-wells / boreholes, protected natural springs and rainwater harvesting / catchment systems.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Land zones (Rural/Urban)

 

(WS-8) Non revenue water[12]  

Units:  Percentage

Definition:  The difference between water supplied and water sold (i.e. volume of water “lost”) expressed as a percentage of water supplied.

Guidance: The volume of water lost is defined as Non Revenue Water (NRW) and consists of two components, technical and commercial. The technical NRW results from leakages in the water distribution network. Commercial NRW could be due to reasons such as illegal water connections, insufficient household affordability to pay the received bills, and lack of an efficient database system by the utility.

Calculation: NRW = 1 – (P/S) where:

NRW = Non Revenue Water

P = Paid Billed Volume by all customers

S = Supplied Volume

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-8.1) Paid billed volume for all customers

Units: Cubic meters

Definition: The volume of metered/unmetered water that is billed and produces revenue. Equal to Billed Metered Consumption plus Billed Unmetered Consumption for the referenced time period for which payment has been received. Billed Metered Consumption includes all groups of customers such as domestic, commercial, industrial or institutional. Billed Unmetered Consumption includes all billed consumption which is calculated based on estimates or norms but is not metered. This might be a very small component in a fully metered system (for example billing based on estimates for the period a customer meter is out of order) but can be the key consumption component in systems without universal metering. These components also include water transferred across operational boundaries (water exported) which is metered/unmetered and billed.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

(WS-8.2) Supplied volume

Units: Cubic meters

Definition: The volume of water supplied to that part of the water supply system to which the water balance calculation relates.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-9) Continuity of service[13]  

Units: Hours per day

Definition: Average hours of service per day for water supply. 

Guidance: Data reported should exclude planned outages. This indicator focuses on “Quality of Service” as defined by IBNET.  Source of data can either be utility hours of operation or a household survey; a household survey is preferred.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Water customers (Residential/Institutional Commercial Industry (ICI))

 

(WS-10) Operating cost coverage[14]  

Units: Percentage

Definition:  Total annual operational revenues divided by total annual operating costs.

Guidance: This indicator focuses on financial performance of the utility to make a determination if the utility is financially viable and can cover its costs. Each country should clearly define how depreciation and maintenance are incorporated into the financial calculation. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan.

Calculation:  OPC = R/C where:

OPC = Operation Cost Coverage

R = Total Annual Operational Revenue

C = Total Annual Operational Cost (including maintenance)

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-10.1) Total annual operational revenue

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The monetary amount billed and collected annually by the utility for utility service rendered and for other services incidental thereto.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-10.2) Total annual operational cost (including maintenance)

Units: US Dollars

Definition: Annual expenses, including maintenance costs, and capital costs incurred as part of the water utility’s operations.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(WS-11) Volume of water produced  

Units: Cubic meters per day

Definition: Total volume of water produced in cubic meters per day for the service area, i.e. leaving treatment works operated by the utility and purchased treated water, if any.  

Calculation: Vt = Va + Vb where:

            Vt = Total Volume of water produced

            Va = Volume registered by water meter prior to the reservoir

            Vb = Volume of water purchased

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

(WS-12) Access to improved water supply[15]  

Units: Percentage

Definition: The percentage of households in the MCC project area whose main source of drinking water is a private piped connection (into dwelling or yard), public tap/standpipe, tube-well, protected dug well, protected spring or rainwater.

Guidance: The Additional Information column in the M&E Plan indicator definition table should specify the definition of “improved” being used under the project.  Depending on the area served, a census count or household survey could be conducted to identify the percentage of households with access to improved water supply and its specific source. The baseline for this indicator would be the percentage of households with improved water supply at the beginning of the project. The change in this indicator may not be attributed solely to MCC since many other factors could influence household water supply. Assumptions and caveats required for statements regarding the project’s impact on access to improved water supply should be documented in the indicator definition table of the M&E Plan.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Land zones (Rural/Urban)

 

(WS-13) Access to improved sanitation  

Units: Percentage

Definition: The percentage of households in the MCC project area who get access to and use an improved sanitation facility such as flush toilet to a piped sewer system, flush toilet to a septic tank, flush or pour flush toilet to a pit, composting toilet, ventilated improved pit latrine or pit latrine with slab and cover.

Guidance: The Additional Information column of the M&E Plan indicator definition table should specify the definition of “improved” being used under the project.  Depending on the area served, a census count or household survey could be conducted to identify the percentage of households with access to improved sanitation and its specific source. The baseline for this indicator would be the percentage of households with improved sanitation at the beginning of the project. The change in this indicator may not be attributed to solely MCC since many other factors could influence household sanitation. Assumptions and caveats required for statements regarding the project’s impact on access to improved sanitation should be documented in the indicator definition table of the M&E Plan.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Land zones (Rural/Urban)

 

(WS-14) Residential water consumption[16]   

Units: Liters per capita per day

Definition: The average water consumption in liters per person per day.

Guidance: The data can be calculated based on water consumed by households as registered from water meter or the utility’s database, or by a household survey.  The persons served would be calculated by multiplying the households by persons per households.  Household survey data is preferred as accurate service population information may not be available from utilities unless the utilities undertake analysis to understand their consumer profiles.  All assumptions used to calculate liters per person per day should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Land zones (Rural/Urban)

 

(WS-15) Industrial/Commercial water consumption[17]   

Units: Cubic meters per month

Definition: The average amount of commercial water consumed measured in cubic meters per month. 

Guidance: The data can be calculated based on water consumed by businesses as registered from water meter or the utility’s data base, or by a survey.  Survey data is preferred as accurate service population information may not be available from utilities unless the utilities undertake analysis to understand their consumer profiles.  All assumptions used to calculate cubic meters per month should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Land zones (Rural/Urban)

 

(WS-16) Prevalence of diarrhea

Units: Percentage

Definition: The percentage of individuals reported as having diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey.

Guidance: This information is typically sourced from a household survey. The exact question(s), sampling frequencies and methodology used to collect data for this indicator should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table of the M&E Plan. To the extent possible, Compacts should use the WHO definition for diarrhea: the passage of 3 or more loose or liquid stools per day, or more frequently than is normal for the individual. For more information on diarrhea measurement and recall periods, see the 2011 publication on diarrhea measurement in the International Journal of Epidemiology.[18] Although a 7 day recall period is recommended, Living Standard Measurement Surveys (LSMS) and the current Phase 6 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS)[19] measure the percentage of children under the age of five who have had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, as these are the most vulnerable populations.  MCC recommends collecting data on incidence in the last 2 weeks, but will assess the country context and research questions to determine whether or not additional questions with varying recall periods (3 days, 7 days, 2 weeks) are necessary.  Illness diaries for children under 15 are also a reliable method for data collection and have been used in studies to record frequency of fever, diarrhea or vomiting over time and may require smaller sample sizes to capture incidence of disease.[20] To the extent possible, data collection for this indicator should capture seasonal variations, particularly in countries with dry and rainy seasons. Statements made to attribute health impacts to the MCC project should only be made in the context of a rigorous, counterfactual-based impact evaluation.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Age (Under age 5/5 years and older)

 

 

Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

(WS-1) Value of signed water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts 

 

(WS-2) Percent disbursed of water sanitation feasibility and design contracts

WS-2.1 Value disbursed of water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts

 

(WS-3) Value of signed water and sanitation construction contracts

 

(WS-4) Percent disbursed of water and sanitation construction contracts

            WS-4.1 Value disbursed of water and sanitation construction contracts

 

(WS-5) Temporary employment generated in water and sanitation construction

WS-5.1 Temporary employment generated in water and sanitation construction (Female)

WS-5.2 Temporary employment generated in water and sanitation construction (Male)

 

(WS-6) People trained in hygiene and sanitary best practices

            WS-6.1 People trained in hygiene and sanitary best practices (Female)

            WS-6.2 People trained in hygiene and sanitary best practices (Male)

 

(WS-7) Water points constructed

            WS-7.1 Water points constructed (Rural)

            WS-7.2 Water pints constructed (Urban)

 

(WS-8) Non revenue water

            WS-8.1 Paid billed volume by all customers

            WS-8.2 Supplied volume

(WS-9) Continuity of service

            WS-9.1 Continuity of service (Residential)

            WS-9.2 Continuity of service (Institutional Commercial Industry)

 

(WS-10) Operating cost coverage

            WS-10.1 Total annual operational revenue

            WS-10.2 Total annual operational cost (including maintenance)

 

(WS-11) Volume of water produced

 

(WS-12) Access to improved water supply

            WS-12.1 Access to improved water supply (Rural)

            WS-12.2 Access to improved water supply (Urban)

 

(WS-13) Access to improved sanitation

            WS-13.1 Access to improved sanitation (Rural)

            WS-13.2 Access to improved sanitation (Urban)

 

(WS-14) Residential water consumption

            WS-14.1 Residential water consumption (Rural)

            WS-14.2 Residential water consumption (Urban)

 

(WS-15) Industrial/Commercial water consumption

            WS-15.1 Industrial/Commercial water consumption (Rural)

            WS-15.2 Industrial/Commercial water consumption (Urban)

 

(WS-16) Incidence of diarrhea

            WS-16.1 Incidence of diarrhea (Under age of 5)

            WS-16.2 Incidence of diarrhea (5 years and older)

 

Education

 

(E-1) Value of signed educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed construction contracts for educational facility construction, rehabilitation, or equipping (e.g. information technology, desks and chairs, electricity and lighting, water systems, latrines) using compact funds.

Guidance: If the value of a contract changes, the total contract value should be reported in the quarter that the change occurred. Cost sharing by others (e.g., the non-MCC funding component of any co-financing with other donors or government) should not be included. Cost associated with supervision or management should not be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(E-2) Percent disbursed of educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed construction contracts for education facility works or equipping divided by the total value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of construction, rehabilitation, and/or equipping contracts (E-2.1). Denominator = Value of signed educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts (E-1).

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(E-2.1) Value disbursed of educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed construction contracts for educational facility construction, rehabilitation, or equipping (e.g. information technology, desks and chairs, electricity and lighting, water systems, latrines) using compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(E-3) Legal, financial, and policy reforms adopted

Units: Number

Definition: The number of reforms adopted by the public sector attributable to compact support that increase the education sector’s capacity to improve access, quality, and /or relevance of education at any level, from primary to post-secondary.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(E-4) Educational facilities constructed or rehabilitated

Units: Number

Definition: The number of educational facilities constructed or rehabilitated according to standards stipulated in MCA contracts signed with implementers.

Guidance: Facilities include classrooms, labs, schools and administrative offices. A facility that receives multiple improvements should be counted only once, as one facility constructed or rehabilitated.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(E-5) Instructors trained

Units: Number

Definition: The number of classroom instructors who complete MCC-supported training focused on instructional quality as defined by the compact training activity.

Guidance: Each country should define clearly what it means to “train” an instructor. This should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan. An individual who receives training or technical assistance multiple times should be counted only once, as one individual trained.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

(E-6) Students participating in MCC-supported education activities

Units: Number

Definition: The number of students enrolled or participating in MCC-supported educational schooling programs.

Guidance: To report on this indicator, the total enrollment in an education activity should be reported and then each year only the additional enrollment should be added to the existing actual.  An individual who receives training or technical assistance multiple times should be counted only once, as one individual trained.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: (A) Sex (Female/Male); (B) Education level (Primary/Secondary/Post-secondary)

 

(E-7) Graduates from MCC-supported education activities

Units: Number

Definition: The number of students graduating from the highest grade (year) for that educational level in MCC-supported education schooling programs.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: (A) Sex (Female/Male); (B) Education level (Primary/Secondary/Post-secondary)

 

(E-8) Employed graduates of MCC-supported education activities

Units: Number

Definition: The number of MCC-supported training program graduates employed in their field of study within one year after graduation.

Guidance: Each country should define “field of study” clearly and this should be documented in the Additional Information column of the indicator definition table in the M&E Plan.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male)

 

 

Education Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

(E-1) Value of signed educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

 

(E-2) Percent disbursed of educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

E-2.1 Value disbursed of educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

 

(E-3) Legal, financial, and policy reforms adopted

 

(E-4) Educational facilities constructed or rehabilitated

 

(E-5) Instructors trained

            E-5.1 Instructors trained (Female)

            E-5.2 Instructors trained (Male)

 

(E-6) Students participating in MCC-supported education activities

            E-6.1 Students participating in MCC-supported education activities (Female)

            E-6.2 Students participating in MCC-supported education activities (Male)

            E-6.3 Students participating in MCC-supported education activities (Primary)

E-6.4 Students participating in MCC-supported education activities (Secondary)

E-6.5 Students participating in MCC-supported education activities (Post-secondary)

 

(E-7) Graduates from MCC-supported education activities

            E-7.1 Graduates from MCC-supported education activities (Female)

            E-7.2 Graduates from MCC-supported education activities (Male)

            E-7.3 Graduates from MCC-supported education activities (Primary)

            E-7.4 Graduates from MCC-supported education activities (Secondary)

            E-7.5 Graduates from MCC-supported education activities (Post-secondary)

 

(E-8) Employed graduates of MCC-supported education activities

            E-8.1 Employed graduates of MCC-supported education activities (Female)

            E-8.2 Employed graduates of MCC-supported education activities (Male)

Power

 

Introduction to Power Common Indicators

This section includes two lists of indicators for the power sector.  The first is the list of common indicators for all power projects.  These indicators aim to meet the criteria for common indicators at MCC (listed below) and provide a snapshot of all power investments in MCC’s portfolio.   Due to the complexity of the sector, the indicators have been broken down into generation, transmission, distribution, and institutional reform (as indicated in Table 1). As not all compacts target every portion of a country’s power infrastructure, this table provides guidance on which common indicators are applicable to the different types of projects funded by MCC. Each compact should only include common indicators that are relevant to the intervention; if the country team would also like to include indicators from a different type of project for information purposes, these should not be assigned the common indicator code.

 

The second list is a set of reference indicators that may be useful and relevant measures for a power sector compact to monitor, but may not meet the criteria for a common indicator.  The goal of this list is to provide an initial guide for M&E leads new to the power sector on which indicators they may consider for their projects.  This list of indicators is intended to supplement the list of common indicators for power.[21]

 

Both the common indicators and the list of reference indicators reflect input from M&E leads, the infrastructure team, and economic analysis.  Lastly, some of the common indicators align with those that MCC will report to Power Africa, a USG interagency effort to help countries expand electricity access across the African continent, as part of MCC’s contribution to this broader initiative.  These indicators, along with their corresponding Power Africa indicators, are identified and footnoted in the document.  

 

Common Indicators should:

  1. Be common to benefit streams in MCC Power Projects
  2. Enable cross-country comparison
  3. Enable aggregation
  4. Track general program logic: process milestones, outputs, outcomes

 

 

 

 

Power Sector Common Indicators

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROGRAM LOGIC FOR POWER SECTOR

Table 1: Power Common Indicators by Sector Segment

 

Generation

(4)

Transmission

(66 kV and above)

(4)

Distribution (Below 66 kV)

(6)

Institutional

Reform

(7)

Process

(5)

(P-1) Value of signed power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts 

(P-2) Percent disbursed of power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts

(P-3) Value of signed power infrastructure construction contracts 

(P-4) Percent disbursed of power infrastructure construction contracts

(P-5) Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction

Output

(9)

(P-6) Generation capacity added

(P-7) Km transmission lines upgraded or built

 

(P-8) Transmission throughput capacity added

 

(P-9) Transmission substation capacity added

(P-10) Km distribution lines upgraded or built

 

(P-11) Distribution substation capacity added

 

 

(P-12) Customers added by project

 

(P-13) Maintenance expenditure-asset value ratio

 

(P-14) Cost-reflective tariff regime

 

 

Outcome

(12)

(P-15) Total electricity supply

 

(P-16) Power plant availability

 

(P-17) Installed  generation capacity

(P-18) Transmission system technical losses (%)

(P-19) Distribution system losses

 

(P-21) System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI)

 

(P-22) System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)

 

(P-23) Total electricity sold

(P-20) Commercial losses

 

(P-24)

Operating cost-recovery ratio

 

(P-25) Percentage of households connected to the national grid

 

(P-26) Share of renewable energy in the country

 

COMMON INDICATORS FOR POWER SECTOR

(P-1) Value of signed power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts  

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental impact assessment contracts, including resettlement action plans, for power infrastructure investments using 609(g) and compact funds.

Guidance: The target for this indicator should be the original value of the contract when first signed.  If the value of a contract changes, the contract modification amount should be reported in the ITT in the quarter that the change occurred.  The Actual to Date should reflect the current contract value, including all modifications. Costs associated with pre-feasibility (if done by MCC), should not be included. Cost of supervision and project management should not be included in this indicator.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-2) Percent disbursed of power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental impact assessment contracts, including resettlement action plans, for power infrastructure disbursed divided by the total current value of signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts (P-2.1). Denominator = Value of signed power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts (P-1). 

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-2.1) Value disbursed of power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed feasibility, design, and environmental impact assessment contracts, including resettlement action plans, for power infrastructure using 609(g) and compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-3) Value of signed power infrastructure construction contracts  

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value of all signed construction contracts for power infrastructure investments using compact funds. 

Guidance: The target for this indicator should be the original value of the contract when first signed.  If the value of a contract changes, the contract modification amount should be reported in the ITT in the quarter that the change occurred. Cost sharing by others (e.g., the non-MCC funding component of any co-financing with other donors or government) should not be included.  However, cost associated with supervision or project management should be included.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-4) Percent disbursed of power infrastructure construction contracts

Units: Percentage

Definition: The total amount of all signed construction contracts for power infrastructure investments disbursed divided by the total current value of all signed contracts.

Guidance: Numerator = Value disbursed of power infrastructure construction contracts (P-4.1). Value disbursed should be defined as: the amount disbursed of all signed construction contracts for power infrastructure investments using compact funds. Denominator = Value of signed power infrastructure construction contracts (P-3).

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-4.1) Value disbursed of power infrastructure construction contracts

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The amount disbursed of all signed construction contracts for power infrastructure investments using compact funds.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-5) Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction

Units: Number

Definition: The number of people temporarily employed or contracted by MCA-contracted construction companies to work on construction of new power infrastructure or reconstruction, rehabilitation, or upgrading of existing power infrastructure.

Guidance: This indicator counts the unique number of people contracted, not the amount of time that those people were temporarily employed.  Even if a person was contracted for 1 day, he/she should be counted.  Both local and foreign workers should be included but identified separately.  Foreign workers are any workers who require a residential permit to be working in the country; anyone considered a national in the country should be counted as a local worker.  Those performing labor that requires specialized training or a learned skill-set to perform the work should be counted as skilled workers.  Those performing labor that requires some skill that may not be performed by an unskilled worker, but not highly specialized skills, should be counted as semi-skilled workers.  Those performing labor that does not require special training or skills should be counted as unskilled workers.  Informal employment generated by construction activities is not included.  However, if an individual worked on the project in one quarter, stopped working, and rejoined later, s/he should only be counted once.  Therefore, tracking this indicator requires a process for uniquely identifying workers, which should be required in the scope of work for relevant contractors.

Level: Process Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: Sex (Female/Male); Labor source (Foreign/Local); Skill level (Skilled/Semi-skilled/Un-skilled)

Targets: Not required

 

(P-6) Generation capacity added[22]

Units: Megawatts

Definition: Generation capacity added, measured in megawatts, resulting from construction of new generating capacity or reconstruction, rehabilitation, or upgrading of existing generating capacity funded with MCC support.

Guidance: This will measure change in rated generating capacity.  Therefore, all generation sources will be counted at their nameplate capacities at the facility level.  This indicator will measure the change in the electricity generation capacity that is due to MCC support.  As this is an output indicator, and not an outcome indicator, it will not take into account mitigating circumstances that may lower the capacity available at a generation station, such as lower capacity due to water level or silt build up or weed infestation, etc.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: (A) Power generation source (On-grid/Off-grid); (B) Power source type (Renewable (including hydro)/Thermal) [23]

 

(P-7) Kilometers of transmission lines upgraded or built[24]

Units: Kilometers

Definition: The sum of linear kilometers of new, reconstructed, rehabilitated, or upgraded transmission lines that have been energized, tested and commissioned with MCC support.

Guidance: Electrical lines of 66 kV or above shall be classified as transmission lines.  Transmission consists of all lines connecting the generation sites to transmission substations.  

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-8) Transmission throughput capacity added

Units: Megawatts

Definition: The increase in throughput capacity, measured in megawatts, added by new, reconstructed, rehabilitated, or upgraded transmission lines that have been energized, tested and commissioned with MCC support.

Guidance: The target for the indicator should be informed by feasibility and load flow studies of the relevant MCC investment in the transmission network, and should reflect the increase in capacity of the network to transmit electricity between key transmission and distribution nodes.  At minimum, the indicator should be reported as an overall change in network throughput capacity.  However, as feasible and appropriate, the value of the indicator should be disaggregated by voltage level.  Values reported across separate investments in higher capacity lines at different parts of the network are not additive with each other, so reporting on the indicator cannot be easily aggregated across the whole network, although more detailed modeling may allow for this.  The value of this indicator should ideally be informed by load flow analysis after the new or upgraded lines have been energized, tested and commissioned. 

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None                                  

 

(P-9) Transmission substation capacity added[25]

Units: Megavolt ampere

Definition: The total added transmission substation capacity, measured in megavolt amperes, that is energized, commissioned and accompanied by a test report and supervising engineer’s certification resulting from new construction or refurbishment of existing substations that is due to MCC support.

Guidance: This indicator shall include the total capacity installed at a substation.  As this is an output indicator, and not an outcome indicator, it will not take into account mitigating circumstances that may lower the capacity available at a substation, such as percentage of use or reserve capacity in substations.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-10) Kilometers of distribution lines upgraded or built[26]

Units: Kilometers

Definition: The sum of linear kilometers of new, reconstructed, rehabilitated, or upgraded distribution lines that have been energized, tested and commissioned with MCC support.

Guidance: Electrical lines below 66 kV shall be classified as distribution lines.  Distribution consists of all lines connecting from transmission substations down to end consumers or as close to end customers as the lines are constructed with MCC support (typically they include 33kV, 11kV and 0.4kV).  

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

           

(P-11) Distribution substation capacity added[27]

Units: Megavolt ampere

Definition: The total added substation capacity, measured in megavolt amperes, that is energized, commissioned and accompanied by a test report and supervising engineer’s certification resulting from new construction or refurbishment of existing substations supported by MCC.

Guidance: This indicator shall include the total capacity installed at a substation.  As this is an output indicator, and not an outcome indicator, it will not take into account mitigating circumstances that may lower the capacity available at a substation, such as percentage of use or reserve capacity in substations.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-12) Customers added by project[28]

Units: Number

Definition: The number of new customers that have gained access to a legal connection to electricity service from an electrical utility or service provider as a direct output of an MCC-funded project or intervention. 

Guidance:  Since new customers are continually added by most electric utilities independently of MCC support, this indicator should capture new connections only for customers targeted by an MCC-funded project or intervention where MCC has funded connection costs either partially or in full.  Reporting for this indicator should be based on monitoring data submitted by the MCA, in coordination with the electric utility.  Residential customers should be disaggregated by male vs. female-headed households.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation:  (A) Tariff class (Residential/Commercial/Industrial); (B) Household head (Female-headed household/ Male-headed household)

 

 (P-13) Maintenance expenditure-asset value ratio

Units: Percentage

Definition: Actual maintenance expenditures / Total value of fixed assets.

Guidance:  In order to report on this indicator, electric utilities require an organized planning process and strategy for asset management, which includes maintenance budgeting for their network.  Maintenance expenditures are classified as those that are directed at conducting preventive, operational, or corrective maintenance and repairs to existing assets, rather than for the procurement or installation of new assets, equipment upgrades, or write-offs.  Relevant assets subject to maintenance include any equipment required for the proper functioning of the network that the utility is responsible for, such as transmission and distribution lines, transformers, or power generation plants.

Percent deviation from the target is calculated for this indicator instead of percent complete. Progress for this indicator is best tracked by percent deviation from the target, because the actual should be as close to the target as possible. A percent deviation of 0% implies the target has been reached, and percent deviation closer to 0% implies better achievement than a higher percent deviation.

Percent deviation is calculated using the following formula: 100*|Actual-Target|/Target.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation:  None

 

(P-13.1) Actual maintenance expenditures

Units: US Dollars

Definition: Maintenance expenditures are classified as the amount of funds expended by the electric utility that are directed at conducting preventive, operational, or corrective maintenance and repairs to existing assets, rather than for the procurement or installation of new assets, equipment upgrades, or write-offs.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-13.2) Total value of fixed assets

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The value in dollars of the fixed assets that are owned, operated or maintained by the electric utility for the purposes of supplying electricity.  Relevant assets subject to maintenance include any equipment required for the proper functioning of the network that the utility is responsible for, such as transmission and distribution lines, transformers, or power generation plants.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-14) Cost-reflective tariff regime

Units: Percentage

Definition: Average tariff per kilowatt-hour / Long-run marginal cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity supplied to customers.

Guidance: Long-run costs are a source of debate in the power sector.  Many times energy utilities either do not have a clear understanding of their long-run cost, or have incentives to inflate those costs to receive a higher tariff from regulators.  On the other hand, the regulator may have an incentive to keep tariffs down and to underestimate the true long-run costs of the sector.

To obtain a reliable estimate of long-run marginal cost, MCC should use the figure calculated by a third party (i.e. neither the regulator, nor the utility). This could be part of a cost of service study, tariff reform study, or other due diligence materials.  It is advisable that any studies consult an integrated or least cost expansion master plans adopted by government for the sector.

Percent deviation from the target is calculated for this indicator instead of percent complete. Progress for this indicator is best tracked by percent deviation from the target, because the actual should be as close to the target as possible. A percent deviation of 0% implies the target has been reached, and percent deviation closer to 0% implies better achievement than a higher percent deviation.

Percent deviation is calculated using the following formula: 100*|Actual-Target|/Target.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-14.1) Average tariff per kilowatt-hour

Unit: US Dollars per kilowatt-hour

Definition: The average tariff per kilowatt-hour should be computed as the weighted average of the approved tariffs based on demand projections for each tariff class by the regulator.

Guidance: Generally, this data should come from the regulator.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-14.2) Long-run marginal cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity supplied to customers

Unit: US Dollars per kilowatt-hour

Definition: Long-run cost of operating, maintaining, and expanding the power grid, inclusive of generation, transmission, and distribution costs based on the integrated or least cost expansion master plans adopted by government for the sector.

Guidance: Long-run costs are a source of debate in the power sector.  Many times energy utilities either do not have a clear understanding of their long-run cost, or have incentives to inflate those costs to receive a higher tariff from regulators.  On the other hand, the regulator may have an incentive to keep tariffs down and to underestimate the true long-run costs of the sector.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-15) Total electricity supply

Units: Megawatt hours

Definition: Total electricity, in megawatt hours, produced or imported in a year.

Guidance:  This indicator is generally available from the electric utility or other regulatory body for the sector.  It is computed as the sum of gross electricity supplied during the year for all generating stations and imports.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation:  (A) Electricity supply source (Domestic/Imports); (B) Plant ownership (Independent Power Producer / Government-owned)

 

(P-16) Power plant availability

Units: Percentage

Definition: Unweighted average across all power plants of the following: total number of hours per month that a plant is able and available to produce electricity / Total number of hours in the same month.

Guidance: The objective of measuring availability is to gauge the quality of maintenance being carried out at the plant.  For reporting purposes, MCA should aggregate monthly data within a reporting quarter to provide quarterly averages.  For hydroelectric plants impacted by low water levels or weed and sediment problems, plants may occasionally be ‘able’ to produce electricity yet still be ‘unavailable’ due to these issues.  Also, power plants may also be unavailable due to factors outside the control of the generating station, such as the unavailability of transmission lines or lack of fuel.  Accordingly, MCA should track any factors outside the control of or planned by the generating station while calculating the ‘availability’ percentage.

Percent deviation from the target is calculated for this indicator instead of percent complete. Progress for this indicator is best tracked by percent deviation from the target, because the actual should be as close to the target as possible. A percent deviation of 0% implies the target has been reached, and percent deviation closer to 0% implies better achievement than a higher percent deviation.

Percent deviation is calculated using the following formula: 100*|Actual-Target|/Target.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation:  None

 

(P-17) Installed generation capacity

Units: Megawatts

Definition: Total generation capacity, in megawatts, installed plants can generate within the country.

Guidance:  The objective of measuring generation capacity is to gauge progress on expansion of the overall power sector, which depends on a variety of factors that may be addressed by MCC investments in both power infrastructure and institutional reform, such as improvements in regulatory independence and effectiveness and the execution of a credible sector expansion plan.  The indicator should be available from relevant sector institutions responsible for policy development, and should be reported in terms of rated capacity of all sources of generation, rather than effective generation capacity.  Off-grid generation capacity includes all isolated power plants or local grids that are not part of an interconnected network, but does not include captive generation or self-generation capacities.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation:  (A) Power generation source (On-grid/Off-grid)

 

(P-18) Transmission system technical losses

Units: Percentage

Definition: 1- [Total megawatt hours transmitted out from transmission substations / Total megawatt hours received from generation to transmission substations].

Guidance: Quarterly estimates should be reported if available; however, collection of data on losses is often unavailable due to insufficient monitoring equipment and estimates are often made based on periodic loss characterization or load flow studies.  Data quality reviews can also serve to improve estimates at baseline while recommending steps to improve accuracy of estimates during the compact.  In some cases, this indicator may not be appropriate to use if there are separate incorporated entities responsible for operating the transmission network, where the utility company may only be responsible for distribution – especially if the compact is only focusing on one subsector (e.g. distribution).

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-18.1) Total megawatt hours transmitted out from transmission substations

Units: Megawatt hours

Definition: Total electricity, in megawatt hours, transmitted out from transmission substations.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-18.2) Total megawatt hours received from generation to transmission substations

Units: Megawatt hours

Definition: Total electricity, in megawatt hours, received from generation to transmission substations.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-19) Distribution system losses

Units: Percentage

Definition: 1 – [Total megawatt hours billed / Total megawatt hours received from transmission].

Guidance:  This indicator is a measure of both technical and commercial losses. The ability to measure and report on technical losses will often be limited by the extent to which an electric utility is able to measure or estimate its commercial losses, which many do not routinely monitor.  A data quality review should be performed early during compact implementation to determine the utility’s capacity for reporting on this indicator, and to assess what investments in data quality and monitoring equipment must be made to enable reporting.  Data should be reported at the highest level possible, likely at the utility or national level.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-19.1) Total megawatt hours billed

Units: Megawatt hours

Definition: Total electricity, in megawatt hours, for which a bill was sent to customers or which was consumed through prepaid metering.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-19.2) Total megawatt hours received from transmission

Units: Megawatt hours

Definition: Total electricity, in megawatt hours, received from transmission substations.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-20) Commercial losses

Units: Percentage

Definition: Total distribution system losses minus distribution technical losses.

Guidance: This indicator may often not be directly reportable by electric utilities due to limited investment in monitoring equipment, or due to infrequent and irregular attempts to determine the extent of commercial losses.  In addition, without sufficient capacity to monitor distribution system technical losses, it may not be possible to reliably assess commercial (also known as non-technical) losses distinctively from technical losses.  A data quality review should be performed early during compact implementation to determine the utility’s capacity for reporting on this indicator, and to assess what investments in data quality and monitoring equipment must be made to enable reporting. 

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-20.1) Total distribution system losses

Units: Percentage

Definition: 1 – [Total megawatt hours billed / Total megawatt hours received from transmission].

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-20.2) Distribution technical losses

Units: Percentage

Definition: The amount of power dissipated in distribution lines and transformers due to internal electrical resistance.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-21) System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI)

Units: Hours

Definition: Sum of durations, in customer-hours, of all customer interruptions in a quarter / Total number of customers connected to network in the same quarter.

Guidance: This indicator is a standardized measure used to assess reliability among electric utilities, and relies on the existence of well-functioning monitoring and data acquisition equipment throughout the network, as well as an accurately maintained customer database for mapping customers to feeder lines.  A data quality review should be performed early during compact implementation to determine the utility’s capacity for reporting on this indicator, and to assess what investments in data quality must be made to enable reporting.  A proxy indicator may also be used in cases where the data required for calculating the index is unavailable or of inadequate quality.  The definition of the recommended proxy indicator is provided in the list of reference indicators for power compacts, and is found under Average Duration of Outages/Interruptions.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-21.1) Sum of durations of all customer interruptions in a quarter

Units: Number

Definition: The sum of the durations of each period of time each customer did not receive power in a given quarter.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-21.2) Total number of customers connected to network in the same quarter

Units: Number

Definition: The total number of customers connected to the network in the same quarter.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-22) System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)

Units: Rate

Definition: Sum of customer-interruptions in a quarter / Total number of customers connected to network in the same quarter.

Guidance:  This indicator is a standardized measure used to assess reliability among electric utilities, and relies on the existence of well-functioning monitoring and data acquisition equipment throughout the network, as well as an accurately maintained customer database for mapping customers to feeder lines.  A data quality review should be performed early during compact implementation to determine the utility’s capacity for reporting on this indicator, and to assess what investments in data quality must be made to enable reporting.  A proxy indicator may also be used in cases where the data required for calculating the index is unavailable or of inadequate quality.  The definition of the recommended proxy indicator is provided in the list of reference indicators for power compacts, and is found under Average Frequency of Outages/Interruptions.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-22.1) Sum of customer-interruptions in a quarter

Units: Number

Definition: Sum of customer-interruptions in a quarter.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-22.2) Total number of customers connected to network in the same quarter

Units: Number

Definition: The total number of customers connected to the network in the same quarter.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-23) Total electricity sold

Units: Megawatt hours

Definition: The total megawatt hours of electricity sales to all customer types.

Guidance:  The indicator should be reported at the level that is most appropriate and relevant to a given compact or project, but will most commonly be reported at the level of a single utility, which may serve a large region of the country or the country as a whole.  The indicator description should also identify whether the source of data is from billing records or financial estimates.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation: Tariff class (Residential/Commercial/Industrial)

 

(P-24) Operating cost-recovery ratio

Units: Percentage

Definition: Total revenue collected / Total operating cost.  Total operating cost is defined as operating expenses plus depreciation.

Guidance: Cost-reflective tariffs aim to set electricity price per kilowatt-hour to account for revenue requirements including operating costs and depreciation, and in many cases even capital costs (if cost of new expansion is captured through tariffs).  Many times utilities do not have a clear understanding of their effective cost for operating and capital expansion.  To obtain reliable estimates of these figures, data should be triangulated with information available through the relevant regulatory authorities, cost of service studies and integrated and least cost expansion or master plans for the sector.  Data reporting for this indicator may depend on audited financial accounts, which are often only audited annually rather than quarterly.

Percent deviation from the target is calculated for this indicator instead of percent complete. Progress for this indicator is best tracked by percent deviation from the target, because the actual should be as close to the target as possible. A percent deviation of 0% implies the target has been reached, and percent deviation closer to 0% implies better achievement than a higher percent deviation.

Percent deviation is calculated using the following formula: 100*|Actual-Target|/Target.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation:  None

 

(P-24.1) Total revenue collected

Units: US Dollars

Definition: The total revenue collected by the utility in a given period.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-24.2) Total operating cost

Units: US Dollars

Definition: Operating expenses plus depreciation.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level (Cumulative)

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-25) Percentage of households connected to the national grid

Units: Percentage

Definition: Number of households that have access to a legal connection to electricity service from an electrical utility or service provider / Total number of households in the country.

Guidance:  The objective of this indicator is to measure trends in the percentage of the population with access to electricity provided through an electrical utility or other service provider.  Reporting for this indicator should be based on monitoring data submitted by the MCA, in coordination with the electric utility and the most recent census or any nationally representative household survey data; this latter source may vary by country.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation:  None

 

(P-25.1) Households that have access to a legal connection to electricity service from an electrical utility or service provider

Units: Number

Definition: Number of households that have access to a legal connection to electricity service from an electrical utility or service provider.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-25.2) Total number of households in the country

Units: Number

Definition: Total number of households in the country.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-26) Share of renewable energy in the country

Units: Percentage

Definition: Total installed generation capacity of on- or off-grid renewable energy, in megawatts / Total installed generation capacity.

Guidance: For this indicator, renewable energy shall be defined as on- or off-grid sources of electricity generation derived from naturally replenished resources including such as wind, hydropower, solar energy, biomass, or biofuel. The indicator should be available from relevant sector institutions responsible for policy development, and should be reported in terms of rated or installed capacity of all sources of generation, rather than effective generation capacity.

Level: Outcome         

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-26.1) Total installed generation capacity of on- or off-grid renewable energy

Units: Megawatts

Definition: Total generation capacity, in megawatts, of installed hydropower, solar, wind, biomass, or biofuel plants within the country.

Level: Outcome

Outcome: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

(P-26.2) Total installed generation capacity

Units: Megawatts

Definition: Total generation capacity, in megawatts, installed plants can generate within the country.

Level: Outcome

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

 

Power Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

(P-1) Value of signed power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts 

 

(P-2) Percent disbursed of power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts

P-2.1 Value disbursed of power infrastructure feasibility and design contracts

 

(P-3) Value of signed power infrastructure construction contracts

 

(P-4) Percent disbursed of power infrastructure construction contracts

            P-4.1 Value disbursed of power infrastructure construction contracts

 

(P-5) Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction

P-5.1 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Female)

P-5.2 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Male)

P-5.3 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Foreign)

P-5.4 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Local)

P-5.5 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Skilled)

P-5.6 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Semi-skilled)

P-5.7 Temporary employment generated in power infrastructure construction (Un-skilled)

 

(P-6) Generation capacity added

            P-6.1 Generation capacity added (On-grid)

P-6.2 Generation capacity added (Off-grid)

P-6.3 Generation capacity added (Renewable)

P-6.4 Generation capacity added (Thermal)

 

(P-7) Kilometers of transmission lines upgraded or built

 

(P-8) Transmission throughput capacity added

 

(P-9) Transmission substation capacity added

 

(P-10) Kilometers of distribution lines upgraded or built

 

(P-11) Distribution substation capacity added

 

(P-12) Customers added by project

            P-12.1 Customers added by project (Residential)

            P-12.2 Customers added by project (Commercial)

            P-12.3 Customers added by project (Industrial)

            P-12.4 Customers added by project (Female-headed household)

            P-12.5 Customers added by project (Male-headed household)

 

(P-13) Maintenance expenditure-asset value ratio

P-13.1 Actual maintenance expenditures

P-13.2 Total value of fixed assets

 

(P-14) Cost-reflective tariff regime

            P-14.1 Average tariff per kilowatt-hour

P-14.2 Long-run marginal cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity supplied to customers

 

(P-15) Total electricity supply

            P-15.1 Total electricity supply (Domestic)

            P-15.2 Total electricity supply (Imports)

P-15.3 Total electricity supply (Independent Power Producer)

P-15.4 Total electricity supply (Government-owned)

 

(P-16) Power plant availability

 

(P-17) Installed generation capacity

            P-17.1 Installed generation capacity (On-grid)

P-17.2 Installed generation capacity (Off-grid)

 

(P-18) Transmission system technical losses

            P-18.1 Total megawatt hours transmitted out from transmission substations

P-18.2 Total megawatt hours received from generation to transmission substations

 

(P-19) Distribution system losses

P-19.1 Total megawatt hours billed

P-19.2 Total megawatt hours received from transmission

 

(P-20) Commercial losses

P-20.1 Total distribution system losses

P-20.2 Distribution technical losses

 

(P-21) System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI)

            P-21.1 Sum of durations of all customer interruptions in a quarter

P-21.2 Total number of customers connected to network in the same quarter

 

(P-22) System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)

P-22.1 Sum of customer-interruptions in a quarter

P-22.2 Total number of customers connected to network in the same quarter

 

(P-23) Total electricity sold

            P-23.1 Total electricity sold (Residential)

P-23.2 Total electricity sold (Commercial)

P-23.3 Total electricity sold (Industrial)

 

(P-24) Operating cost-recovery ratio

P-24.1 Total revenue collected

P-24.2 Total operating cost

 

(P-25) Percentage of households connected to the national grid

P-25.1 Households that have access to a legal connection to electricity service from an electrical utility or service provider

P-25.2 Total number of households in the country

 

(P-26) Share of renewable energy in the country

P-26.1 Total installed generation capacity of on- or off-grid renewable energy

P-26.2 Total installed generation capacity

 

 

LIST OF REFERENCE INDICATORS FOR POWER SECTOR COMPACTS

Transition to pre-paid metering system

Units: Percentage

Definition: Number of customers with pre-paid meters installed / Total number of customers

Rationale: Indicates progress by the utility in transitioning to a pre-paid metering system and thereby improving revenue collection.

Level: Output Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Collection rate

Units: Percentage

Definition: [Trailing twelve months of total value of post-paid bills collected /Total value of bills issued for same customers in trailing twelve months]x 100

Rationale: Measure of the efficiency of revenue collection, specifically the percentage of receivables collected from customers.

Guidance: Existing billing systems may not segregate the arrear amount collected from post-paid customers.  As such, the revenue from post-paid bills collected in a current month may also include arrears and late surcharge payments, which are not accounted separately.  The indicator can be collected on a monthly basis, but it is highly variable – therefore only annual averages should be reported, using trailing twelve month data.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: Region

 

Debt / Equity ratio

Units: Ratio

Definition: Total long-term debt / Total shareholder’s equity

Rationale: Measures the indebtedness of the electric utility.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Average Collection Period

Units: Days

Definition: 365 Days * [(Beginning accounts receivables + ending accounts receivable) / 2) / Total post-paid sales]

Rationale: Measure of the liquidity or financial security of the electric utility and of the efficiency of revenue collection, specifically the time lag between billing and receiving payment.  Average collection period of 40 days represents a good revenue collection. The best performers in the region are Rwanda (10), South Africa (46), Lesotho (56) and Namibia (60).

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Average Creditor Days

Units: Days

Definition: 365 * [(Beginning accounts payables + ending accounts payables) / 2) /Total purchases]

Rationale: Measures how long it takes a company to pay its creditors and indicates company’s creditworthiness from a suppliers’ perspective.  A company slow to pay bills – 100 days or more – and which is slow in collecting receivables may have trouble generating cash or obtaining supplies.  Indicator should be evaluated next to average collection period.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Total System Load Shed

Units: Megawatt-hours

Definition: Total megawatt-hours shed in a year

Rationale: To measure extent and magnitude of generation shortfalls leading to planned outages.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Capital Expenditure

Units: US Dollars

Definition: Total value of new equipment installed in the power network through projects funds and/or private sector partners in a year.

Rationale: Measure of reinvestment in the grid.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Cumulative

Disaggregation: None

 

Operating Profit / Loss

Units: US Dollars

Definition: Operating revenue minus operating expenses.

Rationale: Measure of utility financial health.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Current ratio

Units: Ratio

Definition: Total current assets / Total current liabilities

Rationale: Measure of the liquidity or financial security of the electric utility.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Bad debt

Units: Percentage

Definition: Total value of accounts receivables over 90 days / Total accounts receivable

Rationale: Measure of financial losses of the utility due to uncollectable debt.  Bad debt may increase in the near term due to increasing tariffs and unit sales, creating additional collection burden.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Average Duration of Outages/Interruptions

Units: Hours

Definition: [Total duration, in hours, of interruptions in a quarter / Number of interruptions in the same quarter].

Rationale: Proxy indicator for System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI), a key reliability indicator used in the industry to measure duration of outages. Outage measurements at transmission substations and generation plants underestimate the magnitude of outages at the customer level.  This definition may be used in lieu of SAIDI in cases where the data required for calculating the index is unavailable or of inadequate quality.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Average Frequency of Outages/Interruptions

Units: Ratio

Definition: [Total number of customer interruptions in a quarter / Average number of customers served during the same quarter].

Rationale: Proxy indicator for System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI), a key reliability indicator used in the industry to measure frequency of outages.  Outage measurements at transmission substations and generation plants underestimate the magnitude of outages at the customer level.  This definition may be used in lieu of SAIFI in cases where the data required for calculating the index is unavailable or of inadequate quality.

Level: Outcome Indicator

Classification: Level

Disaggregation: None

 

Revisions to the Guidance on Common Indicators

 

Introduction

 

Female Ownership

March 2013

Change Description:

A definition of Female Ownership was added to the Introduction

Justification:

A few inquiries were made as to what was MCC’s definition of a female owned business; therefore MCC’s definition was included in this common indicator guidance to provide clarity.

 

Agriculture and Irrigation

 

Agriculture and Irrigation Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

March 2016

Change Description:

Codes for Agriculture and Irrigation indicator inputs and disaggregations added

Justification:

The added section assigns codes for Agriculture and Irrigation indicator inputs and disaggregations. These codes are used by MCC’s indicator management system to aggregate values across compacts.

 

(AI-2)

Percent disbursed of irrigation feasibility and design contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

 

(AI-4)

Percent disbursed of irrigation construction contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

 

(AI-6)

Farmers Trained

(AI-10)

Value of Agricultural and Rural Loans

(AI-12)

Hectares Under Improved Practices as a Result of Training

March 2013

Change Description:

Guidance added.

Justification:

Additional guidance was added to the indicators in order to clarify definitions and/or methods for measurement.

 

Land

 

Land Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

March 2016

Change Description:

Codes for Land indicator inputs and disaggregations added

Justification:

The added section assigns codes for Land indicator inputs and disaggregations. These codes are used by MCC’s indicator management system to aggregate values across compacts.

 

(L-6)

Land rights formalized

March 2016

Change Description:

Disaggregation changed from “Community/Male (only)/Female (only) /Joint male and female” to “Community-owned/Male-headed household/Female-headed household/ Co-headed household”

Justification:

The disaggregation categories of were revised because there was confusion about their meaning.

 

(L-6)

Land rights formalized

March 2013

Change Description:

Disaggregation changed from “Community/Male (only)/Female (only) /Joint male and female/Joint male/Joint female” to “Community/Male (only)/Female (only) /Joint male and female”

Justification:

The disaggregation categories of “Joint male” and “Joint female” were dropped because there was confusion about their meaning. In addition, the important aspect of understanding whether or not the formalized rights belonged to a male or female is already covered by the categories of “Male (only)” and “Female (only).”

Change Description:

Indicator name changed from “Household land rights formalized” to “Land rights formalized”

Justification:

The indicator name was changed so that both household and commercial land rights could be tracked.

Change Description:

The definition of the indicator was changed from “The number of households receiving formal recognition of ownership and/or use rights through certificates, titles, leases, or other recorded documentation by government institutions or traditional authorities at national or local levels.” to “The number of household, commercial and other legal entities (e.g., NGOs, churches, hospitals) receiving formal recognition of ownership and/or use rights through certificates, titles, leases, or other recorded documentation by government institutions or traditional authorities at national or local levels.”

Justification:

The change in the definition allowed for tracking additional formalization of land rights beyond the household. It now includes commercial and other non-commercial (beyond households) formalization.

Change Description:

New disaggregation added “Household/Commercial and other legal entity”

Justification:

The new disaggregation was added so that commercial and other land rights formalized could be tracked in addition to household land rights.

Change Description:

The Feed the Future indicator number changed from 4.5.1-16 to 4.5.1-25.

Justification:

Feed the Future changed the indicator number from the June and October 2011 FTF Indicator Handbooks.

 

Roads

 

Roads Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

March 2016

Change Description:

Codes for Roads indicator inputs and disaggregations added

Justification:

The added section assigns codes for Roads indicator inputs and disaggregations. These codes are used by MCC’s indicator management system to aggregate values across compacts.

 

(R-2)

Percent disbursed of road feasibility and design contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

March 2013

Change Description:

Disaggregation changed from “Primary/Secondary/Tertiary” to “None”

Justification:

Disaggregating the inputs that calculate this indicator as well as the indicator itself was deemed too complicated, especially for MCC’s indicator management system. Since MCC will have the inputs (amount signed and amount disbursed) reported in a disaggregated way, it will be possible to calculate the percent disbursed disaggregated by Primary/Secondary/Tertiary outside of the Indicator Tracking Table.

 

(R-5)

Percent disbursed of road construction contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

March 2013

Change Description:

Disaggregation changed from “Primary/Secondary/Tertiary” to “None”

Justification:

Disaggregating the inputs that calculate this indicator as well as the indicator itself was deemed too complicated, especially for MCC’s indicator management system. Since MCC will have the inputs (amount signed and amount disbursed) reported in a disaggregated way, it will be possible to calculate the percent disbursed disaggregated by Primary/Secondary/Tertiary outside of the Indicator Tracking Table.

 

(R-8)

Kilometers of Roads Completed

March 2013

Change Description:

Guidance added.

Justification:

Additional guidance was added in order to clarify the indicator definition.

 

Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

 

Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

March 2016

Change Description:

Codes for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene indicator inputs and disaggregations added

Justification:

The added section assigns codes for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene indicator inputs and disaggregations. These codes are used by MCC’s indicator management system to aggregate values across compacts.

 

(WS-2)

Percent disbursed of water and sanitation feasibility and design contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

 

(WS-4)

Percent disbursed of water and sanitation construction contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

 

(WS-16)

Prevalence of diarrhea

March 2016

Change Description:

WS-16 was revised from “Incidence of diarrhea” to “Prevalence of diarrhea”

Justification:

The name of this indicator was revised to more accurately match the indicator definition.

 

Education

 

Education Common Indicator Inputs and Disaggregations

March 2016

Change Description:

Codes for Education indicator inputs and disaggregations added

Justification:

The added section assigns codes for Education indicator inputs and disaggregations. These codes are used by MCC’s indicator management system to aggregate values across compacts.

 

(E-2)

Percent disbursed of educational facility construction, rehabilitation, and equipping contracts

March 2013

Change Description:

Classification changed from “Cumulative” to “Level”

Justification:

This indicator reports the amount of signed contracts disbursed as a percentage. The amount of contracts signed and the amount of contracts disbursed are both cumulative over the life of the program. Therefore the percent disbursed is cumulative in nature. However, in MCC’s indicator management system, if this indicator is marked as “Cumulative,” the percent disbursed calculated each quarter will be added together with the previous quarter’s percent disbursed thereby double-counting. Even though this indicator calculates the cumulative amount disbursed compared to the cumulative amount signed, it must be marked as “Level” for MCC’s MIS to display the correct value.

Power

 

Power Common Indicators

March 2016

Change Description:

Common Indicators for Power sector compacts added

Justification:

The added section provides definitions and guidance for indicators that are applicable to various types of power projects funded by MCC.  In addition, a list of reference indicators are provided that do not meet criteria for a common indicator, but may be useful and relevant measures for power sector compacts to monitor.  The new section includes indicator inputs and disaggregations for Power indicators.

 

 

 

[1] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.2-7

[2] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.2-11

[3] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.2-29

[4] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.2-5

[5] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.2-2

[6] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.2-28

[7] If no activities are included in the compact to reduce conflicts, this may be tracked without targets.

[8] The household disaggregation is USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.1-25

[9] Registry is the final step, but time should incorporate all steps necessary for property registration or transfer including related time spent by the notary, cadastral, registry and other relevant offices. 

[10] Other transfers such as inheritances and gifts can be tracked by the M&E plan but should not be included as part of this common indicator.

[11] USG Feed the Future (FTF) Indicator 4.5.1-17.  Any Km of road reported to FTF through this indicator must connect rural-based production (such as agriculture) with population centers and market activity.

[12] International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Indicator 6.1

[13] International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Indicator 15.1

[14] International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Indicator 24.1

[15] For urban networked projects, this indicator is associated with International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Indicator 1.1

[16] International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Indicator 4.7 and 4.3 designed on urban measurements but also applicable to rural measurements

[17] International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Indicator 4.4

[18] A practical guidance for diarrhea measurement in studies is included in the following publication: Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Benjamin F Arnold, Sophie Boisson, and 1 Bernd Genser, Stephen P Luby, Mauricio L Barreto, Thomas Clasen and Sandy Cairncross “Epidemiological methods in diarrhea studies— an update” Int. J. Epidemiology. Advance Access published November 8, 2011.

[19] http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/DHSQ6/DHS6_Questionnaires_3Jan2012.pdf

[20] Florence Devoto, Esther Duflo, Pascaline Dupas, William Pariente, Vincent Pons, “Happiness on Tap: Piped Water in Urban Morocco,” The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, April 2011.

[21] In situations where data quality or measurement capability cannot support reporting on some common indicators, proxy indicators are also provided in this supplemental list.  In particular, alternative indicators for measuring the duration (P-21) and frequency (P-22) of outages are provided in this reference list.  

[22] USG Power Africa (PA) Indicator: Generation Capacity Commissioned

[23] Thermal generation includes energy from burning a fuel source, such as coal or natural gas.

[24] USG Power Africa (PA) Indicator: Kilometers of Power Lines Constructed or Rehabilitated

[25] USG Power Africa (PA) Indicator: Substation Capacity Added

[26] USG Power Africa (PA) Indicator: Kilometers of Power Lines Constructed or Rehabilitated

[27] USG Power Africa (PA) Indicator: Substation Capacity Added

[28] USG Power Africa (PA) Indicator: Electricity Access