Economic Rates of Return

Transparency and accountability are key principles of MCC’s practice. In the interest of transparency MCC makes its Economic Rate of Return (ERR) data available via interactive, downloadable Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. These spreadsheets are unique to each compact Project, Activity (both defined within a compact), or set of closely related interventions (henceforth “project”).

Each spreadsheet includes:

  • A description of the project, including its economic rationale;
  • The expected impacts, including detailed cost and benefit estimates;
  • A tool allowing users to modify key assumptions and study the effects of those modifications on the project’s returns.

Some familiarity with cost-benefit analysis will be essential to using these spreadsheets.

The Essence of the Economic Rate of Return (ERR)

An Economic Rate of Return (ERR) provides a convenient metric to compare the economic costs and benefits of a public investment, program, or policy measure (or “project”). In MCC’s economic analyses, the costs of a project include all necessary economic costs—financial expenses covered by MCC and other parties, as well as opportunity costs of non-financial resources expended. Benefits include the increased income of a country’s population or the increased value added generated by producers (firms and households) that can be attributed to the proposed project. Value added is defined as the value of gross production (or sales) minus the cost of intermediate inputs produced (and purchased from) outside the firm.

Pre-investment Economic Analysis and ERRs

Conducting economic analysis of a proposed MCC project prior to investment decision entails making a forecast of its likely economic impact and its costs. The resulting ERR provides a measure of its cost-benefit relationship to inform investment decisions. MCC’s pre-investment ERRs represent its best estimate given the data and evidence available at that stage.

Closeout ERRs

MCC began updating ERRs upon compact closeout in 2011. These ERRs provide an updated estimate of a project’s cost-benefit relationship based on the information available at the time of closeout, when MCC’s costs and some indicators of benefits are known. Closeout ERRs are still forecasts, given that for many projects benefits do not start until after compact closeout, and these benefits can continue for 20 years or more. Moreover, impact evaluation findings, which provide a measure of the degree of any project impact to date, are typically not available at time of closeout. Closeout ERRs are thus distinct from an ERR based on measured benefits resulting from the MCC’s projects (see “Post-Compact ERRs” below).

In 2014, MCC produced its first annual report on closeout ERRs, the main purpose of which was to document facts on ERRs updated upon compact closeouts. The annual reports are available below:

Post-Compact ERRs

MCC often tasks its independent evaluators to re-estimate ERRs again, based upon the best available evidence of project impact. Where feasible, this is done through rigorous impact evaluation.

Publicly Sharing ERRs

One of MCC’s guiding principles is that foreign assistance should reinforce good governance practices, including enhanced transparency in government decision-making. As one of its initiatives aimed at increased transparency, MCC makes publicly available on its website both ERR spreadsheets that were used in its funding decisions and those updated at closeout. The spreadsheets are released in Microsoft Excel format so that users can interact with the formulas, supporting data, and underlying assumptions used in the calculations. In addition, many of the files include interactive components that allow users to change key assumptions and see how those changes affect the project’s ERR. The spreadsheets available here reflect the most current version. The spreadsheets reflect the technical rigor of the original economic calculations. MCC includes a project description and a user’s guide in each file to make the spreadsheets more widely accessible.

Calculating ERRs

MCC’s methodology for ERR analysis is best described as micro-economic growth analysis, which measures the expected increases in household incomes or the value added of individual firms. These ERRs include income or value added that is expected to be generated through environmental and social improvements, such through the effect of clean water on health outcomes. However, they do not attempt to incorporate the non-income related value of environmental and social improvements

Every ERR calculation considers two scenarios:

  • The expected outcome with the project; and
  • The expected outcome without the project.

Scenario 1:
Expected Outcome with project

This scenario reflects the increases in income or value added generated by the proposed program, as well as the full costs related to the program.

Scenario 2:
Expected Outcome without project

The second scenario, called the counterfactual, reflects an estimate of what is likely to happen in the future if the project does not take place. While this may be considered a “status quo” scenario, the estimation of future economic outcomes without the project also accounts for dynamic trends. For example, a growing economy would be expected to continue growing consistent with recent projections, even without the project, and private investments would likely be made without any subsidies implied by a project. Economic analysis compares the difference in incomes or value added between the two scenarios, factoring in the timing of accrued costs and benefits. Since the value of a benefit accruing to people sooner is greater than the value of the same benefit accruing later, benefits and costs are discounted over time. The ERR, which is a summary statistic coming out of a cost-benefit analysis is expressed in percentage terms and represents the discount rate at which benefits equal costs after discounting. Investments meeting MCC’s hurdle ERR are those for which benefits are at least as high as costs after adjusting for the time value of money. Projects that are likely to generate larger increases in household incomes per dollar invested will have higher ERRs.

MCC models incorporate the best information available at the time regarding core parameters, but projections of future economic activity for both scenarios must account for uncertainty. MCC conducts sensitivity analysis on its ERRs using a range of plausible values on the major variables that drive the results. ERRs represent MCC’s best estimate of the expected result of the project, while the sensitivity analysis represents the potential range of outcomes.

Investment Decisions

MCC takes many factors into consideration when making its decisions to approve compact investments. MCC expects that programs will generate adequate benefit streams to justify the specific investments (or projects). MCC also conducts beneficiary analysis to assess whether its investments will deliver benefits to the poor. At the same time, MCC values country ownership and places a premium on supporting initiatives that enjoy broad support in the country and that were developed through a consultative process. It also examines whether the program proposal is consistent with MCC policies and guidelines on gender, the environment, and procurement procedures, among others. Finally, MCC also analyzes each investment to determine its sustainability—i.e., the degree to which benefits are likely to be sustained, or the degree to which costs—including potential environmental costs—may grow.

ERRs and Compact Proposals

Compact-eligible countries prepare a compact proposal which is intended to address main constraints to economic growth (identified through a Constraints Analysis—see LINK) and proposes several programs to address those constraints. Countries are also asked to analyze the economic impact of their proposed programs, and to estimate an ERR. MCC’s compact development process includes a review of these ERR estimates as well as additional investigation and data collection to produce a best estimate of a program’s ERR. The compact development process requires that MCC work with a country to identify and assess possible alternatives, modifications, or complements to the proposed projects, in order to enhance the prospect of achieving adequate economic returns and poverty reduction.

Country Spreadsheets

Download spreadsheets to see MCC ERR data which helped determine the approval of these compacts.

These spreadsheets provide a window into the assessment of economic impact used by the MCC in its consideration of the proposed project. MCC understands that key parameters will change over time, and project design may be revised during implementation. When project designs or model parameters change significantly, MCC may revise these models; updated information will be posted here as it becomes available.

What the spreadsheet data represent:

  • An overall impact estimate.The spreadsheets provide MCC’s best pre-investment estimate of the likely economic impact of the project and form the basis for monitoring and evaluation efforts.
  • Estimated benefits. The spreadsheets estimate the expected increases in either incomes or value added of individuals, households, firms or sectors of economic activity.
  • A counterfactual scenario. Potential benefits are compared against what is likely to happen without the project (e.g., a growing economy would be expected to continue growing, even without the project).
  • A snapshot in time. The spreadsheets reflect the best data available to MCC at the time the project was approved for investment.

What the spreadsheet data do not represent:

  • The sole reason for an investment decision.Although ERRs are an integral part of MCC’s decision-making process, other factors are considered when MCC decides whether to undertake a project.
  • A detailed beneficiary analysis.The ERR spreadsheets portray the overall economic impact of a project rather than apportioning the income gains along various demographic dimensions.
  • Up-to-the-minute information for projects in implementation.Many of the parameters that are used in these pre-investment estimates change over time, so ERRs may not reflect the actual implementation experience. When project designs or model parameters change significantly, MCC may revise these models; updated information will be posted here as it becomes available.